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	<title>OSP-BLOG</title>
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	<description>Open Source Publishing - Graphic Design Caravan</description>
	<pubDate>Tue, 10 Oct 2017 10:28:24 +0000</pubDate>
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	<wp:author><wp:author_id>27</wp:author_id><wp:author_login><![CDATA[Eric]]></wp:author_login><wp:author_email><![CDATA[eric@ericschrijver.nl]]></wp:author_email><wp:author_display_name><![CDATA[Eric]]></wp:author_display_name><wp:author_first_name><![CDATA[Eric]]></wp:author_first_name><wp:author_last_name><![CDATA[Schrijver]]></wp:author_last_name></wp:author>
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		<title>Installing Fontforge on an Mac PPC osX</title>
		<link>http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/?p=22</link>
		<pubDate>Mon, 30 Nov -0001 00:00:00 +0000</pubDate>
		<dc:creator><![CDATA[admin]]></dc:creator>
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		<content:encoded><![CDATA[<a title="fontforge link" target="_blank" href="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/wp-admin/www.fontforge.com">http://fontforge.sourceforge.net/
</a>

Fontforge (FF) is a font editor software, very complete, developped by Mr <a href="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=221">Georges Williams</a>. As fonts are today the "<a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arch">clé de voute</a>" of open source graphic softwares, we thought it would be usefull to explain how to install it on a ppc macintosh osx, the dedicated machine for graphic designers.

Fontforge runs under X11

<!--more-->

<strong>To install X11</strong>
install it from OSXcd, or <a href="http://www.apple.com/support/downloads/x11formacosx.html">download it</a> from apples website

<strong>To install Fontforge</strong>
To download and install it, it is necessary to install a Darwin Port. This is a "door" in the mac machine that allows you to install those softs. (<a title="darwinports link" target="_blank" href="http://darwinports.com">http://darwinports.com</a>). You have to follow the steps indicated on that site.

The darwin port make a connection with the Fontforge files on the internet, collect them and constructs the soft in your machine.
<em>Attention, the console will download and install without showing a rainbow circle or a waiting icon. it will just write lines of action in the window. This is confusing, you never know if it works or if it's frozen. </em>
It happened during several unsuccesfull other installations, so I left the port open the entire night in case of...

The installation is done when sentence "user-powerbook-g4-15:/opt/local/bin user$" appears in the console.

It is possible to install FF with Fink as well, but I don't know the procedure.
A big surprise with this system, for Mac users, is the absence of icon in the application folder. The soft is buried in the hierarchy of the machine. You have to indicate this hierarchy in X11 to launch it. 
You can do a "shortcut" in X11, in <code>Applications</code> menu -> <code>Customise menu</code> -> <code>Add</code>
In my machine, it was in
<code>/opt/local/bin/fontforge.</code> ]]></content:encoded>
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		<title>Appropriation and Type - before and today</title>
		<link>http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/?p=182</link>
		<pubDate>Wed, 31 Jan 2007 09:43:40 +0000</pubDate>
		<dc:creator><![CDATA[Ricardo]]></dc:creator>
		<guid isPermaLink="false">http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=182</guid>
		<description></description>
		<content:encoded><![CDATA[I will argue in this essay that appropriation has been a recurring and accepted strategy in defining typography as activity and business. More specifically, I will cite four cases where appropriation has definitely been key in defining landmarks in the history of type, not only aiding the breaking of technical and creative boundaries but also helping to question legal and moral ones.
 
Afterwards, I'll present an analysis of the current situation in typography, focusing on the approach to the subject by corporations, users and designers. I'll argue that the current business model (digital foundries, font files with copyrights) is a remnant of a time where a typeface filled a whole drawer and fails to account for the necessary changes that the information age demands, concluding with the definition of an essentially contradictory business model that has very strong stands against "font forging" and copyright issues, although it has historically - and now, more than ever - thrived on constant, and often uncredited, appropriation of ideas and designs. 

<!--more-->

Index
1. Appropriation in type through history
	i. The Gutenberg press 
	ii. Stanley Morison and Monotype
	iii. Arial
	iv. Segoe
2. The digital typography paradigm
	i. Corporate type
	ii. User type
	iii. Designer type
3. Tweaking and reviving
4. Technology on arcane standards
5. What now

a. Notes
b. References
c. Online references


1. APPROPRIATION IN TYPE THROUGH HISTORY

We could certainly identify many more instances of inspiration or downright copying of ideas in typography, but these four cases will suffice to demonstrate the different uses of copy, inspiration and appropriation in general. Our focus here will be on the issue of creative appropriation (inspiration) on one hand, and corporate business models and copyright issues (plagiarism) on the other.

i. The Gutenberg Press

In 1450, Johannes Gutenberg produced the first commercially viable model of his printing press, which was widely used for centuries until the advent of the Linotype machine, the first way to automate, though partially, the type setting and printing process.
Gutenberg's press was the result of the combination of five key methods and processes, three - possibly four - of which were not original:

* The screw press, which was already used by the Greeks and Romans to process olive oil and wine.
* Block printing, present in China since 594 AD. Gutenberg's innovation was to use metal cast types (instead of the Chinese traditional woodblock printing), although metal typecasting was already developed in Korea around 1230 AD.
* Letter punches, which were a goldsmithing technique - Gutenberg was a goldsmith - used to engrave letters in metal pieces.
* Letter replica casting, a method to quickly create new individual characters, along with a particular metal alloy that made for durable pieces. This method has been attributed to Gutenberg but recent studies shed doubts on this fact.
* Metal-adherent ink, devised by Gutenberg.

This shows that originality is not a straightforward issue, in a time before copyrights existed (it was not before 1700 that the first copyright statute appeared in Britain), the protection of ideas could have changed the fate of this invention. the combination of methods made. What matters here is that they were combined in a way that made typography as we know it possible, and there seems to be absolutely no question to the legitimacy of this invention, which was made possible by appropriating previous methods and processes. Gutenberg's model of printing stood firm for centuries until the Linotype machine introduced partial automation of the printing process.

ii. Stanley Morison and Monotype
 
On 1886, the Linotype machine began to be produced by the Mergenthaler Printing Co. in the United States. It wouldn't take long, though (a year) for Lanston Monotype to begin production of their own fully-automated typesetting machine, devised by Tolbert Lanston.

In 1922, Stanley Morison was appointed as typographic advisor of the Monotype Corporation (the British branch of the Philadephia company), a post he would keep until 1967. The Monotype Corporation built an extensive catalog of cuts made by Morison from classic references, such as Bodoni, Bembo, Baskerville, and several others. These revivals helped to bring general interest to the old masters' works, besides consisting of a general market strategy to try to push up the value of the Monotype machine - the faces available would definitely determine the decision of a buyer who fancies a particular style, and thus the Monotype Corporation had no qualms about recruiting all the classics (which were in the public domain).

It is tremendously unfair, though, to portray Morison as a hijacker - he was one of the hallmarks of 20th century type, being responsible for the creation of Times New Roman and hugely influencing the field of typography to the present day by the efforts he dedicated to bringing the classics to the general public - legitimately appropriating other designs. Without Morison's endeavour, our legacy would certainly be poorer today.

iii. Arial, Monotype and Microsoft

1982 is the year in which the Arial typeface was released by Monotype Typography (Monotype Corporation's type design division). Designed by Robin Nicholas and Patricia Saunders, this typeface had a remarkable issue. Not only does it have obvious similarities to other modern sans-serifs (sharing features with Helvetica, Univers and Akzidenz Grotesk), it exactly mirrors the glyph width tables from Helvetica, which is the data included in a font file that describes each character's dimensions. An exact match that gives little chance for coincidence. 

Microsoft licensed Arial from Monotype instead of the more expensive Helvetica, and in 1990 it was bundled with Microsoft Windows 3.1. It has been a staple of Windows systems until today. This is a specific case where a typeface was chosen not by its genuine creative and/or practical value but by external reasons, in this case backed by financial motives. Type designers are almost unanimous in shunning Arial as a lesser typeface: it is notably absent from Robert Bringhurst's typeface selection in The Elements of Typographic Style (the current all-around reference on type design from the designer's perspective), and is also only mentioned as a passing remark on Robin Nicholas's entry on the typographic encyclopedic survey by Friedl et al[1]. This is pretty much a clear notion of the type designers' community on the Arial issue; it's also worth noting that there has been, however, no attempt to replace Arial as a standard font in operating systems[2].

In strict legal/copyright terms, it's appropriate to compare the Arial case to a cheating student who argues that the fact that his exam has exact passages from his nearest classmates' exams owes to coincidence. It's reasonable to argue that borrowing from three sources rather than just one does not make the situation more acceptable. 

So Arial stands in mixed principles: the type community is unanimous in calling shenanigans, but it still made its way to our current operating systems despite that fact - it never met any legal actions.

iv. Segoe

In early 2006, Microsoft announced a significant effort to dignify type design in their upcoming Vista operating system: six type designers - Lucas de Groot and Robin Nicholas figuring among them - were comissioned to design appropriate typefaces for screen and print. The result was six very attractive fonts that not only could appeal to general uses by less savvy people, but also soothe the type designers' fancy.

Another font included in Vista is Segoe, a revival of Frutiger Next (which in turn is a revival of Frutiger) that Microsoft licensed from Monotype and altered. It's not the first case in which Adrian Frutiger's work has been remade: Adobe's Myriad and Apple's Podium Sans also bear a striking resemblance to Frutiger's structure. When Microsoft  registered Segoe in Europe in 2004, Linotype sued for copyright infringement since European law, unlike the American one, recognises the rights to font designs (although patent law is often used to circumvent this legal void in the US). 

The most significant fact is that Microsoft based their defense not on the issue of originality - stating the differences between Segoe and Frutiger Next, but on the fact that Linotype wasn't selling its typeface in Europe when the request was filed. This situation could very well be interpreted as an admission by Microsoft's part that the font in fact owes credit to Frutiger's design. 

This case becomes all more revealing in that it's a high-profile and current example of an attempt to settle the authenticity of a type design in courts. Unlike Arial, it didn't sneak past the critics and found serious hurdles while Microsoft tried to implement it in its Windows OS. A verdict on the Segoe case is expected in early 2007.


2. THE DIGITAL TYPOGRAPHY PARADIGM

Typography, and type design in particular, is historically defined by a constant recursion of past themes and trends, be it as inspiration - revivals - or as a way to question them - as in post-modern type examples, such as Emigre and Letterror's work). Nevertheless, modern designs still owe heavily (with or without credit) to a tradition of arts and crafts spanning five centuries. 

Meanwhile, on the last 20 years, the type world hasn't ceased discussing the issue of rights and plagiarism, a discussion that was sparked by the digital revolution and the introduction of the personal computer as an all-purpose design and production tool. This shift implied that the tools used in typography and book production ceased to be the sole domain of type makers, printers and book publishers - the only ones that could afford the initial investment of a type foundry, workshop or printing press and manage it effectively. Designing type soon became cheaper and cheaper, as the physical footprint of the new tools gradually became smaller and smaller. Nowadays, a computer and a printer can do in minutes what a huge phototypesetting equipment would have taken a lot of time, effort and money to produce 10 years ago. 

The most important effect of the digital revolution in type design is that typefaces became fonts - a radical change in that they were no more lead blocks but data, files that describe how each glyph should be drawn on screen or on a printer. FontForge, a free software solution to type design, was released in 2004, doing away with any software costs involved in font creation and editing, meaning the only overhead for a type design business would be a PC, paper, drawing tools, an image-capture device (scanner or camera) and eventually an Internet connection. This change has massive repercussions in the whole typography market: now type design wouldn't, in theory, require any kind of intermediaries between the typographer/designer and its audience. Reality developed otherwise, as we will see from three standpoints in typography usage and creation.

i. Corporate Type

The digital revolution made a deep re-definition of most areas of study possible. We will show, though, that the field of typography has been lagging behind when it comes to taking advantage of the digital medium. Moreover, the corporate business model has failed to account for the specific needs and features of information technology, sticking to an artificial market sustained by an inflated value attributed to digital files as if they still were physical objects that are owned.

Nowadays, there are three major players in the type business: Microsoft, Adobe and Monotype Imaging.

Apple Computer hasn't been a key figure in the type market (concentrating on developing font technology for its operating system), but it had an essential role in developing the actual playing field. Apple heralded the personal computer era in with their original Macintosh and has intermittently collaborated and competed with Microsoft and Adobe, being responsible for the development of the TrueType font format along with Microsoft as a response to Adobe's high-priced PostScript Type I font description format. The release of TrueType in 1991 forced Adobe to gradually reduce prices and eventually follow suit, releasing the PostScript specifications so that software developers could implement it without limitations in their programs.

Adobe Systems Inc., besides being responsible for a highly successful suite of imaging and DTP software, has a very strong position in the type market: not only is it a type vendor (through its typography division, Adobe Type) but also the most influential company in the sense that it owns most digital design solutions - especially after acquiring its main rival Macromedia in April 2005 and facing no significant competition in its market.

Microsoft is responsible for creating the most widely used operating system, as well as the most popular office suite. Along with Adobe, Microsoft developed the currently dominant OpenType file format, which is freely available to developers as long as they agree to the licensing terms. Adobe converted its entire type collection to OpenType in a move to spread the new standard.

Monotype Imaging is now a distant remnant of Tolbert Lanston's original creation. It has adjusted technical breakthroughs in the 20th century and claimed a staunch position in today's digital type market. It was acquired by Agfa in 1999 forming Agfa Monotype, which in turn was acquired by TA Associates (a North American investment firm), changing its name to Monotype Imaging and developing a position in font software and rendering engines, and also securing a strong standpoint in the font vendor market after acquiring its rival Linotype (and the rights to their entire type collection).

ii. User Type

Most people get introduced to digital type by means of text editors. The digital revolution would be the perfect reason to finally open typography to everyone and make it a mainstream subject instead of a limited-access craft. Things have happened otherwise, though, and the inability to create a suitable interface for allowing basic experimentation with type has severely crippled the possibilities of the new medium.
 
The font selection paradigm has changed little during the years, offering a whole collection of typefaces in a drop-down menu. Such is the immediateness of digital type: It's just there, no need to open drawers with thousands of lead characters. Users are encouraged, by means of a simple GUI, to just pick their font and get to work on their document. Even more: you don't even need to pick, just stick with the default choice the software maker's made for you. Word processing interfaces also assume the user doesn't want to be bothered with layout choices such as margins, structure - and they also make the choice for us (incidentally, they also made it quite awkward to change these defaults). In short: the standard word-processing interface tells users to not bother with type. 

This paradigm helps to build the general perception that a font is a finished, shrink-wrapped and untouchable product - pretty much like prepackaged software. Although font files can be opened and edited given we have a simple editor, most typeface editors are either crude or catering exclusively to the type designer market. The user usually isn't able to reach the underpinnings and intricacies of type, instead being expected just to understand that the default template is more than enough.

Such an approach to software designing effectively discourages any kind of interest in typographic issues by the general public, and helps to fuel the thought that fonts are "just there". It's worth noting that there is still no easy and streamlined way to buy, install and use fonts, unlike most other digital markets - iTunes would be a good example of that kind of market strategy.

iii. Designer Type

The type designer community is centered on the study of classical and modern examples and making attempts to postulate theory and practical guidelines for the craft of type design, sitting somewhere between the methods of architecture and those of poetry. 

Fred Smeijers's analysis of the type designer's duty, in his manifesto, is quite straightforward. On the issue of responsibility of type designers and commitment to specific guidelines, he states that "a type designer cannot escape this responsibility of judgment (...). In the end, people - the society - either accept it or they don't"[3]. Society, it seems, would be the ultimate judge of whether a typeface is a hallmark of craft or doomed to failure. 

On the other hand, we find a curious account on Smeijers's description on Fontana, a typeface by Ruben Fontana inspired by Meta [4]: he describes it as "uncomplicated", "tres sympathique", "sunny" and "open minded". This certainly sounds more like a description of a person or a song than that of an object, and indeed sheds some doubt on the touted objectiveness of good type design in the sense that it seems unable to find serious and objective terms to classify a typeface's features. Historical categorisations of design tendencies vary from author to author, and although there are some widely used terms to describe historical periods and typeface features, such as "transitional type" or "slab serifs", there's a tendency to borrow from poetry and music to identify a type family's "soul" (which, though relevant from an artist or a historian's point of view, is rather unscientific).

This is not a contradiction, though, since we can distinguish between type as a creative activity (in which there would be no problem with this kind of analogy) and type as an industry and commodity (where profit, market tendency, shareholder demands and legal requirements imply that things have a definite value and purpose). Naturally, Smeijers's interest is on the craft and art of typography, and not the market and the economic relationships that it spawns. On the other hand, our interest is definitely that which Smeijers doesn't care for. 

We need to account that defending the status of type as a functional solution to practical problems requires an objective set of rules that derive from the way we read and write. We cannot yet account for matters of objective legibility while we don't possess all information on our mental processes and the mechanisms in the brain involved in acquiring and processing written information - this is the field of cognitive psychology and neuroscience. 

We know, from history, that a text with generous linespacing will certainly read better than other with no linespacing at all. The German blackletter used by Gutenberg in his Bible, however, is almost unreadable to a contemporary westerner's eyes and definitely alien to someone from a non-Western background. In the fifteenth century, though, it was certainly the norm. History can help to avoid repeating mistakes, but it also shows the relative importance of our current standards. 

In short, we still cannot objectively define type, and won't be able to before a major breakthrough in neural science. However, copyright issues and legal matters impose formal specifications on what a font is and what it is not. Whether a typeface is a tweak, a revival or a work of art is left to the courts.


3. TWEAKING AND REVIVING

In order to explain the type designer's first reluctance to embrace the digital alternative, and also understand how design processes are not as straightforward as they are presented to us, we'll concentrate on Fred Smeijers's account on the current state of events in typography. Specifically, we'll borrow his term "font tweaking"[5]. This process consists of loading a font, "tweaking" it - altering small details - and releasing them with different names. Smeijers is clear in pointing that font tweakers have nothing to do with type design at all, reinforcing the distinction between doing type as a labour of love and doing it for a profit. 

Font revivals, on the other hand, are re-interpretations of existing designs, and our best example would be Morison's effort in bringing the classical designs into the Monotype type library. Revivals matter to us because they aren't original productions (as they draw inspiration from existing designs) but aren't copies either (because no rights over them could be warranted otherwise, since there would be no original idea). 

Digital type foundries and vendors still maintain the tradition, digitising and redoing the old masters' work. It's worth noting that even if a certain typeface, such as those with expired copyrights, resides in the public domain, anyone can make a digital version - a revival - and claim the rights to it. 

Digital type catalogues are rife with revivals: In Bringhurst's inventory of digital foundries[6], we can find 14 that issue revivals, and 4 that only release original designs. This interest in resuscitating previous designs also has motives that stand apart from simple typographic archaeology. Revivals are routinely issued by vendors and foundries to protect the rights of the rightsholder when a typeface's copyright is about to expire. Such is the case with Avenir LT, Adobe Garamond and Frutiger Next - which is what allowed Linotype to retain the rights to the original design and be able to sue Microsoft. 

Revivals reside in a kind of legal in-between - some, like Arial (which is more a tweak than a declared revival), manage to stick around; while others, like Segoe, raise copyright lawyers' eyebrows.

Given these two aspects, one cannot but wonder that a type designer wouldn't be thrilled with this perspective. One has also to question why there is such a rift in reactions between font tweaking and font revivals, which can be interpreted as no more than corporate font tweaking. A practical example of this is MyFonts.com's description of the Avenir LT font (LT stands for Linotype) - a "recut version of Avenir", stating that "The 'LT' was added to the name as the metrics differ from the original version". This definitely corresponds to Smeijers' description of font tweaking, despite the fact that the name change wasn't intended to avoid legal troubles, but to assert the brand of the author of the revival. What is a revival, then, other than a corporate-sanctioned font tweak?

4. TECHNOLOGY ON ARCANE STANDARDS

The current terminology used in typography is also a clear signal of how it still depends on former traditions instead of adapting to its new medium.

Digital typography's rules and terminology have been determined by its physical counterparts, and that still hasn't changed. For example, we still talk about "leading" - a term for the spacing between lines that takes its name from the lead strips used for that purpose - although the term "line spacing" is gradually replacing it in user-oriented applications such as Microsoft Word. 

Another example: while type foundries got that name because of their heavy use of metal, single-person studios with Macs are still referred to as "foundries". And fonts are described as being "cut" or "cast", more than "digitised". We talk about "digital versions" instead of digital copies, perhaps to preserve their history and soul and not treat them as just another file in a user's computer. 

Although we can forgive this persistence in using traditional typesetting terms (mayhap as a historic homage), it also is a symptom that the type activity and business have failed to redefine themselves for the digital medium. On the other hand, these examples can actually be interpreted as quite an artificial and linguistic way to value the work of the typographer, probably with the aim of distinguishing between "true" type designers and mere font tweakers, and not let "true" typography be contaminated by the creeping tweaker threat. 


5. WHAT NOW

Given that digital type is hanging around for thirty years, the progress in improving on font technology and taking advantage of the digital medium has been rather dim. On the other hand, type designers in general (with the exception of rare cases such as Emigre) have not tried to get to grips with font technology, rather limiting themselves to drawing and tracing their designs in Fontographer and selling them on major font vendors (MyFonts, Monotype) or independent ones (such as T26 and Veer). Worse still, issues of originality and plagiarism have been discussed in type design circles, but corporate entities break them routinely while trying, at the same time, to assert their rights in courts.

The difference between major and minor vendors is not substantial: though distributors like Veer try to create a community and improve on the users' and designers' experience compared to major sellers through research, designer spotlights and support, digital typefaces are still regarded in an esoteric limbo between metal characters and abstract data. And though the price tags have steadily declined (and recently stabilised in the 20 dollar range in general), it is revealing that business models like iTunes or Flickr, or collaborative methods in producing typefaces (many typographers are still lone workers) haven't shown up yet, and that file formats have changed so little in the face of recent, sleeker solutions like XML and SVG. And there's little hope for innovation: the Adobe-Macromedia and Monotype-Linotype mergers have paved the ground for a corporate monoculture ruled by software and typeface vendors and distributors, with very little margin for competition.

We can also point a mutual apathy between developers and designers as a possible reason - type designers try to adapt to outdated ways - file formats and type tools - to create their works, while developers lag in keeping up to date to new breakthroughs. Limiting the tools is limiting the imagination.

On the other hand, font vendors have an incredibly contradictory stance regarding font rights, using copyright law to protect their products while violating it to borrow from others'. The different fate of Arial and Segoe begs the question: are the vendors and distributors handling this as it should be handled?

This model's obvious contradictions definitely invite serious questioning as to the legitimacy and validity of the current type market and business model, which cannot effectively release its standards and technology because of the threat of competition. It's therefore left to users, designers and independent developers to shape a new way of defining type and creating effective communication channels between providers and users, be it through online communities or real-world discussion in type designer's circles and colleges.

As soon as this new model comes to fruition, type vendors will probably have no more reason to stay in business; they could sustain an artificial market for some years (like they have done in the last decades), but as the designers and their target audiences gradually learn how to directly contact with each other by means of personal websites and type communities, the type design activity would be again open to re-define its identity, freeing itself from the arcane traditions of cuts, heavy presses, price tags and copyrights.


a. Notes

[1] Friedl, Ott, Stein: Typography: An encyclopedic survey of type design and techniques through history. (p. 409)
[2] Arial is now a "standard" font of web typography, being part of a very limited set of fonts that all browsers can read.
[3] Smeijers, Fred: Type Now. (p.25)
[4] id., p. 40
[5] id., p. 32
[6] Bringhurst, Robert: The Elements of Typographic Style. (p.309)


b. References

Bringhurst, Robert: The Elements of Typographic Style. Vancouver, Hartley & Marks, 2002.
Smeijers, Fred: Type Now. London, Hyphen Press, 2003.
Friedl, Ott, Stein: Typography: An encyclopedic survey of type design and techniques through history. London, Black Dog & Leventhal, 1998.
Steinberg, S.H., and Trevitt, John: Five Hundred Years of Printing (4th Revised edition). London, Oak Knoll Press, 1996.


c: Online references

"The Scourge of Arial" by Mark Simonson (background and critical account on Arial)
http://www.ms-studio.com/articles.html

"Is Microsoft's Vista Font Just a Copy?" by Brian Livingston (news article on the Segoe legal case)
http://redir.internet.com/!search/itmanagement.earthweb.com/columns/executive_tech/article.php/3599861

"Designer Says Vista Font Is Original" by Brian Livingston (followup on the previous story)
http://redir.internet.com/!search/itmanagement.earthweb.com/columns/executive_tech/article.php/3599861

The Funny Font Forging Industry - A Report for Legal Authorities by Ulrich Stiehl (aggressive report on font tweaking and appropriation)
http://www.sanskritweb.net/forgers/#FORGERS

]]></content:encoded>
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		<category domain="post_tag" nicename="libre-fonts"><![CDATA[Libre Fonts]]></category>
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		<title>Proprietary formats, tips and tricks: stuffit and psd.</title>
		<link>http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/?p=184</link>
		<pubDate>Sat, 28 Apr 2007 10:11:13 +0000</pubDate>
		<dc:creator><![CDATA[nicolas]]></dc:creator>
		<guid isPermaLink="false">http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=184</guid>
		<description></description>
		<content:encoded><![CDATA[Graphic designers send me often big email attachments which are compressed by the Aladin software Stuffit. And if I find a way to open them, they usually contain files that are saved in the internal photoshop format PSD. Here follow a few tips to work around the problems.

Imagine, I receive an attachment called ImageFolder.sit that contains a compressed folder of 100 images named Image1.psd, Image2.psd, Image3.psd, ... Img100.psd.

First how to open .sit file... Linux distributions like Ubuntu let you install a package call macutils. Once installed you can run commands such as:
Which do not always work. But there is still hope, eventhough it is not free software. Alladin releases a version of Stuffit Expander for Linux. Once installed, it lets you run commands like:

In my experience, most of the time, these softwares succeed to uncompress stuffed files. Most of the time, unfortunately means that on rare occasions, you end up with error messages. The only solution then is to try and convince your colleague designers to at least consider compress their files with the zip utility that MacOSX integrates in the system's browser.

Second, I want to convert easily the PSD files into jpg to integrate them into webpages. I will use the Imagemagick program called convert to flatten the layers, preserve the quality of the images and saved them into the jpeg format while resizing them at 20% of their size.]]></content:encoded>
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		<category domain="post_tag" nicename="how-to"><![CDATA[How-to]]></category>
		<category domain="post_tag" nicename="standards-formats"><![CDATA[Standards + Formats]]></category>
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		<title>Sharpen, what does that mean?</title>
		<link>http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/?p=185</link>
		<pubDate>Mon, 30 Nov -0001 00:00:00 +0000</pubDate>
		<dc:creator><![CDATA[nicolas]]></dc:creator>
		<guid isPermaLink="false">http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=185</guid>
		<description></description>
		<content:encoded><![CDATA[http://redskiesatnight.com/Articles/IMsharpen/]]></content:encoded>
		<excerpt:encoded><![CDATA[]]></excerpt:encoded>
		<wp:post_id>185</wp:post_id>
		<wp:post_date><![CDATA[2007-05-06 17:06:02]]></wp:post_date>
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			<wp:meta_value><![CDATA[{{unknown}}]]></wp:meta_value>
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		<title>Voir la vie en Pantone</title>
		<link>http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/?p=279</link>
		<pubDate>Mon, 30 Nov -0001 00:00:00 +0000</pubDate>
		<dc:creator><![CDATA[Harrisson]]></dc:creator>
		<guid isPermaLink="false">http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=279</guid>
		<description></description>
		<content:encoded><![CDATA[Thanks to DEV13, scribus got now a Pantone swatches


For a quick introduction of the Pantone system used in the print world, read <a href="http://nashi.altmuehlnet.de/pipermail/scribus/2007-June/024338.html">Louis remarks</a>]]></content:encoded>
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		<title>Papered</title>
		<link>http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/?p=361</link>
		<pubDate>Mon, 30 Nov -0001 00:00:00 +0000</pubDate>
		<dc:creator><![CDATA[Harrisson]]></dc:creator>
		<guid isPermaLink="false">http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=361</guid>
		<description></description>
		<content:encoded><![CDATA[Printer finally handled the file to its ultimate stage: press. ]]></content:encoded>
		<excerpt:encoded><![CDATA[]]></excerpt:encoded>
		<wp:post_id>361</wp:post_id>
		<wp:post_date><![CDATA[2007-11-13 16:01:48]]></wp:post_date>
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		<title>Installing Linux (Ubuntu) on a MacBook Pro</title>
		<link>http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/?p=412</link>
		<pubDate>Mon, 30 Nov -0001 00:00:00 +0000</pubDate>
		<dc:creator><![CDATA[Pierre]]></dc:creator>
		<guid isPermaLink="false">http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=412</guid>
		<description></description>
		<content:encoded><![CDATA[Ça fait maintenant des mois que je fais tourner des logiciels Open Source à travers X11, l'interface fournie sur le CD d'installation de Mac OS X 10.4, et installé par défaut en 10.5 mais malheureusement moins stable sur ma machine. Des travaux un peu plus solides m'attendent, il était grand temps que j'installe un *vrai* Linux en parallèle à mon Mac-de-papa.

Harrisson avait fait le pas avec l'aide de Philip May il y a quelques semaines sur sa plaque MacBook Pro aussi, mais dans une version Santa Rosa -troisième génération- toute récente. Résultat : quasi aucun souci, et un Harri qui repasse de plus en plus rarement sous OS propriétaire...

La mienne de plaque a un peu plus d'un an, un MacBook Pro 17" de deuxième génération mais ça ne doit pas faire des différences énormes. Donc c'est parti, en choisissant la même distribution que Femke et Harri, un bon Ubuntu de débutant.

<ul>
	<li>Lundi - 9h15 : D'abord faire un backup complet (avec TimeMachine, c'est quand même pas difficile!), puis un bon nettoyage de mon disque souvent encrassé par un redémarrage sur CD d'installation et un "Repair disk" dans "Disk utility". Tiens, souvent les même problèmes avec des fichiers préférences de Photoshop...</li>

	<li>Lundi - 9h40 : Puis j'attaque avec l'URL fourni par May https://help.ubuntu.com/community/MacBookPro - il en existe d'autres, mais celui-ci, en direct de chez Ubuntu, semble vraiment bien faire le tour de la question et être régulièrement maintenu.
Donc le principe, c'est :
	<ul>
	<li>installer rEfit qui permet de démarrer (booter) soit sur Mac soit sur Linux</li>

	<li>demander à Bootcamp Assistant (dans les Utilities) de créer une partition</li>

	<li>puis installer Ubuntu sur cette partition, à partir d'un CD gravé depuis un fichier .iso téléchargé précédemment.</li>
</ul>
Tout est détaillé très précisément, pas vraiment moyen de se tromper.</li>

	<li>Lundi - 10h30 (quelques interruptions, le boulot etc.) : Étapes par étapes, ça a l'air de ronronner... Voi-là, je redémarre sur mon Ubuntu, (je suis accueilli par des tambours d'Afrique du sud, je vois des têtes en forme de ? qui se tournent vers moi au studio, et par un fond d'écran couleur café  - il y a moyen de changer ça) mais ça fonctionne!</li>

	<li>Lundi - 15h00 : Chez Constant, Wendy et Femke me montrent la fonction magique "Xxxxx" : une recherche sur Inkscape, cocher "Xxxxx", puis "Apply" et il télécharge + installe gentiment ce dont on a besoin. Une vraie petite liste de courses. Bon, l'affichage écran est un peu étiré, je dois trouver comment taper l'arobase et le trackpad un peu sautillant, mais ça c'est des réglages.</li>

	<li>Mardi - 23h30 - J'attaque ces réglages, toujours avec le très complet manuel. 
	<ul><li>D'abord le clavier, dans mon cas sélectionner un clavier français Macintosh, dans XXXX et c'est réglé.</li>
	<li>Pour le trackpad, c'est plus costaud, mais ça vaut la peine.</li></ul>
</li>
</ul>]]></content:encoded>
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		<wp:post_date><![CDATA[2008-04-09 03:11:17]]></wp:post_date>
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	<item>
		<title>Adobe release an free licence font ;)</title>
		<link>http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/?p=429</link>
		<pubDate>Mon, 30 Nov -0001 00:00:00 +0000</pubDate>
		<dc:creator><![CDATA[Pierre]]></dc:creator>
		<guid isPermaLink="false">http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=429</guid>
		<description></description>
		<content:encoded><![CDATA[<img src="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/otficons.png" alt="" title="otficons" width="383" height="180" class="aligncenter size-full wp-image-430" />

"The license for this software reads as follows:
Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy of this software and associated documentation files (the "Software"), to deal in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions: THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM, OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE SOFTWARE."

What is lowercase, what is uppercase...

Excerpt from a <a href="http://blogs.adobe.com/typblography/2008/03/opentype_icons.html">post</a> of the Adobe's Product Manager for Fonts & Global Typography Thomas Phinney's blog.]]></content:encoded>
		<excerpt:encoded><![CDATA[]]></excerpt:encoded>
		<wp:post_id>429</wp:post_id>
		<wp:post_date><![CDATA[2008-04-14 00:29:38]]></wp:post_date>
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		<category domain="post_tag" nicename="licenses"><![CDATA[Licenses]]></category>
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			<wp:meta_value><![CDATA[14]]></wp:meta_value>
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	<item>
		<title>if:book, Sophie and CommentPress</title>
		<link>http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/?p=500</link>
		<pubDate>Mon, 30 Nov -0001 00:00:00 +0000</pubDate>
		<dc:creator><![CDATA[nicolas]]></dc:creator>
		<guid isPermaLink="false">http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=500</guid>
		<description></description>
		<content:encoded><![CDATA[http://www.futureofthebook.org/blog/
http://ifbook.blip.tv/file/196827/

Thanks to http://www.apsed.com/blog/]]></content:encoded>
		<excerpt:encoded><![CDATA[]]></excerpt:encoded>
		<wp:post_id>500</wp:post_id>
		<wp:post_date><![CDATA[2008-05-19 09:54:07]]></wp:post_date>
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		<category domain="category" nicename="news"><![CDATA[News]]></category>
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			<wp:meta_value><![CDATA[9]]></wp:meta_value>
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	</item>
	<item>
		<title>Free, Libre and Open Source design schools</title>
		<link>http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/?p=1550</link>
		<pubDate>Mon, 30 Nov -0001 00:00:00 +0000</pubDate>
		<dc:creator><![CDATA[OSP]]></dc:creator>
		<guid isPermaLink="false">http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=1550</guid>
		<description></description>
		<content:encoded><![CDATA[Parsons school of design teaches webdesign for and with open source software. Students learn to work with indexhibit and wordpress asking questions such as: How do we learn and how can we teach through interface? What is the role of design in the open source world? And how can we give back to this new collaborative movement?

On the day he was named as president of RISD, John Maeda launched an internal blog on which everyone there can talk openly to him about the school. Maeda addressed the moral responsibility of designers. He stressed the importance of transparency in design, and of extending the participatory "open source" development process now popular in software design to other sectors. He maintained that although keeping secrets creates the illusion of power, if nobody knows you have a secret, its value is worthless.




]]></content:encoded>
		<excerpt:encoded><![CDATA[]]></excerpt:encoded>
		<wp:post_id>1550</wp:post_id>
		<wp:post_date><![CDATA[2009-02-13 16:12:24]]></wp:post_date>
		<wp:post_date_gmt><![CDATA[0000-00-00 00:00:00]]></wp:post_date_gmt>
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		<category domain="category" nicename="education"><![CDATA[Education]]></category>
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			<wp:meta_value><![CDATA[14]]></wp:meta_value>
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	<item>
		<title>Maeda</title>
		<link>http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/?p=1594</link>
		<pubDate>Mon, 30 Nov -0001 00:00:00 +0000</pubDate>
		<dc:creator><![CDATA[OSP]]></dc:creator>
		<guid isPermaLink="false">http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=1594</guid>
		<description></description>
		<content:encoded><![CDATA[John Maeda addressed the moral responsibility of designers. He stressed the importance of transparency in design, and of extending the participatory "open source" development process now popular in software design to other sectors. He maintained that although keeping secrets creates the illusion of power, if nobody knows you have a secret, its value is worthless. On the day he was named as president of RISD, Maeda launched an internal blog on which everyone there can talk openly to him about the school.]]></content:encoded>
		<excerpt:encoded><![CDATA[]]></excerpt:encoded>
		<wp:post_id>1594</wp:post_id>
		<wp:post_date><![CDATA[2008-12-31 09:32:08]]></wp:post_date>
		<wp:post_date_gmt><![CDATA[0000-00-00 00:00:00]]></wp:post_date_gmt>
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		<category domain="category" nicename="news"><![CDATA[News]]></category>
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			<wp:meta_value><![CDATA[14]]></wp:meta_value>
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	</item>
	<item>
		<title>Comparison</title>
		<link>http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/?p=1859</link>
		<pubDate>Fri, 13 Feb 2009 16:03:32 +0000</pubDate>
		<dc:creator><![CDATA[OSP]]></dc:creator>
		<guid isPermaLink="false">http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=1859</guid>
		<description></description>
		<content:encoded><![CDATA[<script type="text/javascript" src="http://www.ohloh.net/p/99/widgets/project_basic_stats.js"></script>
<script type="text/javascript" src="http://www.ohloh.net/p/43/widgets/project_basic_stats.js"></script>
<script type="text/javascript" src="http://www.ohloh.net/p/443/widgets/project_basic_stats.js"></script>
<script type="text/javascript" src="http://www.ohloh.net/p/69/widgets/project_basic_stats.js"></script>]]></content:encoded>
		<excerpt:encoded><![CDATA[]]></excerpt:encoded>
		<wp:post_id>1859</wp:post_id>
		<wp:post_date><![CDATA[2009-02-13 17:03:32]]></wp:post_date>
		<wp:post_date_gmt><![CDATA[2009-02-13 16:03:32]]></wp:post_date_gmt>
		<wp:comment_status><![CDATA[closed]]></wp:comment_status>
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		<wp:post_name><![CDATA[comparison]]></wp:post_name>
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		<category domain="category" nicename="news"><![CDATA[News]]></category>
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			<wp:meta_value><![CDATA[7]]></wp:meta_value>
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		<wp:comment>
			<wp:comment_id>44686</wp:comment_id>
			<wp:comment_author><![CDATA[max]]></wp:comment_author>
			<wp:comment_author_email><![CDATA[maxim.s.barabash@gmail.com]]></wp:comment_author_email>
			<wp:comment_author_url>http://sk1project.org/</wp:comment_author_url>
			<wp:comment_author_IP><![CDATA[195.58.248.5]]></wp:comment_author_IP>
			<wp:comment_date><![CDATA[2009-02-13 18:03:01]]></wp:comment_date>
			<wp:comment_date_gmt><![CDATA[2009-02-13 17:03:01]]></wp:comment_date_gmt>
			<wp:comment_content><![CDATA[]]></wp:comment_content>
			<wp:comment_approved><![CDATA[1]]></wp:comment_approved>
			<wp:comment_type><![CDATA[]]></wp:comment_type>
			<wp:comment_parent>0</wp:comment_parent>
			<wp:comment_user_id>0</wp:comment_user_id>
		</wp:comment>
	</item>
	<item>
		<title>Theming FontForge</title>
		<link>http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/?p=2559</link>
		<pubDate>Mon, 30 Nov -0001 00:00:00 +0000</pubDate>
		<dc:creator><![CDATA[Pierre]]></dc:creator>
		<guid isPermaLink="false">http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=2559</guid>
		<description></description>
		<content:encoded><![CDATA[http://fontforge.wiki.sourceforge.net/theme-clearlooks]]></content:encoded>
		<excerpt:encoded><![CDATA[]]></excerpt:encoded>
		<wp:post_id>2559</wp:post_id>
		<wp:post_date><![CDATA[2009-05-06 19:42:31]]></wp:post_date>
		<wp:post_date_gmt><![CDATA[0000-00-00 00:00:00]]></wp:post_date_gmt>
		<wp:comment_status><![CDATA[closed]]></wp:comment_status>
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		<wp:post_parent>0</wp:post_parent>
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		<category domain="category" nicename="news"><![CDATA[News]]></category>
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			<wp:meta_value><![CDATA[15]]></wp:meta_value>
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	</item>
	<item>
		<title>Scribus 1.3.5</title>
		<link>http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/?p=2837</link>
		<pubDate>Mon, 30 Nov -0001 00:00:00 +0000</pubDate>
		<dc:creator><![CDATA[OSP]]></dc:creator>
		<guid isPermaLink="false">http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=2837</guid>
		<description></description>
		<content:encoded><![CDATA[
We're laying out the Puerto Cookbook in brand new Scribus 1.3.5!]]></content:encoded>
		<excerpt:encoded><![CDATA[]]></excerpt:encoded>
		<wp:post_id>2837</wp:post_id>
		<wp:post_date><![CDATA[2009-06-02 15:42:29]]></wp:post_date>
		<wp:post_date_gmt><![CDATA[0000-00-00 00:00:00]]></wp:post_date_gmt>
		<wp:comment_status><![CDATA[closed]]></wp:comment_status>
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		<wp:post_parent>0</wp:post_parent>
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			<wp:meta_value><![CDATA[14]]></wp:meta_value>
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	</item>
	<item>
		<title>And the winner is...</title>
		<link>http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/?p=2859</link>
		<pubDate>Thu, 04 Jun 2009 14:51:40 +0000</pubDate>
		<dc:creator><![CDATA[Harrisson]]></dc:creator>
		<guid isPermaLink="false">http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=2859</guid>
		<description></description>
		<content:encoded><![CDATA[Salut dag à tou/te/s,

Ter informatie / pour votre information:

Open Source Publishing ont gagné le Prix PLantin-Moretus 2009 dans le categorie 'non fiction' pour le graphisme du livre Cross-Over de BAM
Hurray ! Joepie ! Excellent !
http://www.plantinmoretusprijzen.be/

La céremonie a lieu ce soir à 20h00 à Bozar, Salle Henri Lebeuf, tout le monde est bienvenue,
het is ook de opening van de tentoonstelling van de boeken die bekroond zijn
De uitreiking is vanavond om 20.00 in Bozar, Henri Lebeufzaal, iedereen welkom,
c'est également l'ouverture de l'expo des livres qui ont gagné
http://www.plantinmoretusprijzen.be/?p=tentoonstelling

Cordiallement, hoogachtend,

uw / votre
Constant ]]></content:encoded>
		<excerpt:encoded><![CDATA[]]></excerpt:encoded>
		<wp:post_id>2859</wp:post_id>
		<wp:post_date><![CDATA[2009-06-04 16:51:40]]></wp:post_date>
		<wp:post_date_gmt><![CDATA[2009-06-04 14:51:40]]></wp:post_date_gmt>
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		<category domain="post_tag" nicename="awards"><![CDATA[Awards]]></category>
		<category domain="category" nicename="news"><![CDATA[News]]></category>
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	<item>
		<title>Me Too</title>
		<link>http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/?p=3233</link>
		<pubDate>Tue, 14 Jul 2009 19:16:08 +0000</pubDate>
		<dc:creator><![CDATA[OSP]]></dc:creator>
		<guid isPermaLink="false">http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=3233</guid>
		<description></description>
		<content:encoded><![CDATA[http://www2.bryceharrington.org:8080/drupal/me-too-storms]]></content:encoded>
		<excerpt:encoded><![CDATA[]]></excerpt:encoded>
		<wp:post_id>3233</wp:post_id>
		<wp:post_date><![CDATA[2009-07-14 21:16:08]]></wp:post_date>
		<wp:post_date_gmt><![CDATA[2009-07-14 19:16:08]]></wp:post_date_gmt>
		<wp:comment_status><![CDATA[closed]]></wp:comment_status>
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		<wp:is_sticky>0</wp:is_sticky>
		<category domain="post_tag" nicename="bug-reporting"><![CDATA[Bug reporting]]></category>
		<category domain="post_tag" nicename="free-software-community"><![CDATA[Free Software Community]]></category>
		<category domain="category" nicename="news"><![CDATA[News]]></category>
		<category domain="post_tag" nicename="terminology"><![CDATA[Terminology]]></category>
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	<item>
		<title>Free Software and Cars</title>
		<link>http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/?p=3271</link>
		<pubDate>Mon, 30 Nov -0001 00:00:00 +0000</pubDate>
		<dc:creator><![CDATA[OSP]]></dc:creator>
		<guid isPermaLink="false">http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=3271</guid>
		<description></description>
		<content:encoded><![CDATA[<img src="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/iQ1.png" alt="iQ" title="iQ" width="400" height="292" class="alignright size-full wp-image-3289" />
In this recent Toyota campaign, a race-driver draws a font. And if you watch the fast-paced 'making-of' video closely, it seems that Please Make Me Design (a band of type-designers from Brussels) used Free Software to produce it: FontForge and OpenLayers are used to create the project.

<img src="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/screenshot-inkscape.png" alt="screenshot-inkscape" title="screenshot-inkscape" width="400" height="301" class="alignright size-full wp-image-3291" />

A few years ago, I started to collect Free-Software-screenshots-featuring-cars. I was thinking about the design of softwares, which means to somehow imagine how a tool will be used, even before it exists. I started looking at the kinds of screenshots F/LOSS graphics projects put out to advertise their projects, because it might show something about the nature of the practice that it intends to support. At that time, many of them featured ... cars. Confirming all the gendered cliché's of your typical software developer, Scribus, Gimp and Inkscape had independently decided to feature high powered, mean machines as the main subject to demo their softwares with. Luckily, the collection never grew very large, and I am starting to think there is a chance the F/LOSS community finally will is coming to terms with its own blind spot vis-a-vis the lack of diversity within.

<img src="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/13674.jpg" alt="13674" title="13674" width="400" height="300" class="alignright size-full wp-image-3290" />

"<em>There is no such thing as a perfect application, just as there are no perfect automobiles, and the designers know this</em>" ((Gregory Pittman compares the look-and-feel of Scribus to that of a Mercedes car.  Scribus mailinglist, <a href="http://lists.scribus.info/pipermail/scribus/2008-February/027866.html">http://lists.scribus.info/pipermail/scribus/2008-February/027866.html</a>))

To see Free Software being featured in a car-ad is an exciting development; it hints at the possibility of those tools being interesting and mature enough to appear on the radar of design agencies. But it is also frustrating that designers + developers meet on the same predictable representation of technology.]]></content:encoded>
		<excerpt:encoded><![CDATA[]]></excerpt:encoded>
		<wp:post_id>3271</wp:post_id>
		<wp:post_date><![CDATA[2009-08-12 22:55:14]]></wp:post_date>
		<wp:post_date_gmt><![CDATA[0000-00-00 00:00:00]]></wp:post_date_gmt>
		<wp:comment_status><![CDATA[closed]]></wp:comment_status>
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		<wp:post_parent>0</wp:post_parent>
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		<wp:is_sticky>0</wp:is_sticky>
		<category domain="post_tag" nicename="culture-of-work"><![CDATA[Culture of work]]></category>
		<category domain="post_tag" nicename="free-software-community"><![CDATA[Free Software Community]]></category>
		<category domain="post_tag" nicename="inkscape"><![CDATA[Inkscape]]></category>
		<category domain="post_tag" nicename="scribus"><![CDATA[Scribus]]></category>
		<category domain="category" nicename="tools"><![CDATA[Tools]]></category>
		<category domain="post_tag" nicename="tools"><![CDATA[Tools]]></category>
		<wp:postmeta>
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	<item>
		<title>It has arrived!</title>
		<link>http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/?p=3667</link>
		<pubDate>Mon, 30 Nov -0001 00:00:00 +0000</pubDate>
		<dc:creator><![CDATA[OSP]]></dc:creator>
		<guid isPermaLink="false">http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=3667</guid>
		<description></description>
		<content:encoded><![CDATA[As part of the stream of posts still on our list, let's start with this one]]></content:encoded>
		<excerpt:encoded><![CDATA[]]></excerpt:encoded>
		<wp:post_id>3667</wp:post_id>
		<wp:post_date><![CDATA[2009-12-04 18:06:45]]></wp:post_date>
		<wp:post_date_gmt><![CDATA[0000-00-00 00:00:00]]></wp:post_date_gmt>
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		<title>OSP for GAGARIN = NEW RECORD!</title>
		<link>http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/?p=3793</link>
		<pubDate>Mon, 30 Nov -0001 00:00:00 +0000</pubDate>
		<dc:creator><![CDATA[Harrisson]]></dc:creator>
		<guid isPermaLink="false">http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=3793</guid>
		<description></description>
		<content:encoded><![CDATA[Maybe we did the first 33 rpm record sleeve design in full open source! Commissionned by <a href="http://www.felixkubin.com/">Felix Kubin</a> for <a href="http://gagarinrecords.com/">Gagarin Records</a> in Hamburg, the <a href="http://gagarinrecords.com/artists/vernonandburns/">Vernon & Burns</a> album shows hight octane Inkscape 047 features such as tile clones, spiro, engravings... and so on. It's also printed with an extra copper metallic color, thanks to Scribus 135 and Pierre Marchand. Font used is OSP Limousine
The covert art files are released under free art license 1.3, and can be taken here! - SOON -]]></content:encoded>
		<excerpt:encoded><![CDATA[]]></excerpt:encoded>
		<wp:post_id>3793</wp:post_id>
		<wp:post_date><![CDATA[2010-01-23 21:37:15]]></wp:post_date>
		<wp:post_date_gmt><![CDATA[0000-00-00 00:00:00]]></wp:post_date_gmt>
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	<item>
		<title>Take Survey: OSS Usability Improvement</title>
		<link>http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/?p=3915</link>
		<pubDate>Fri, 12 Feb 2010 14:25:31 +0000</pubDate>
		<dc:creator><![CDATA[OSP]]></dc:creator>
		<guid isPermaLink="false">http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=3915</guid>
		<description></description>
		<content:encoded><![CDATA[<h3>Evaluating OSS usability improvement from Industry Perspective</h3>

"The following survey is a part of my PhD research work to empirically evaluate the effects of key factors listed below on the Open Source Software (OSS) Usability. The International Organization for Standardization and The International Electro technical Commission ISO/IEC 9126-1 [1] defines usability as<em> The capability of the software product to be understood learned, used and attractive to the user, when used under specified conditions</em>"

Take the survey: <a href="http://www.kwiksurveys.com/online-survey.php?surveyID=BOHMN_8d5c35f8">http://www.kwiksurveys.com/online-survey.php?surveyID=BOHMN_8d5c35f8</a>

[1] International Standard ISO/IEC 9126-1 (2001) Software Engineering – Product Quality – Part 1: Quality model (first edition, 2001-06-15):9-10
]]></content:encoded>
		<excerpt:encoded><![CDATA[]]></excerpt:encoded>
		<wp:post_id>3915</wp:post_id>
		<wp:post_date><![CDATA[2010-02-12 16:25:31]]></wp:post_date>
		<wp:post_date_gmt><![CDATA[2010-02-12 14:25:31]]></wp:post_date_gmt>
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		<category domain="author" nicename="osp"><![CDATA[OSP]]></category>
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		<category domain="post_tag" nicename="usability-links"><![CDATA[Usability links]]></category>
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	<item>
		<title>Ok, it is time now.</title>
		<link>http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/news/is-it-possible</link>
		<pubDate>Fri, 20 Jan 2006 16:59:06 +0000</pubDate>
		<dc:creator><![CDATA[Harrisson]]></dc:creator>
		<guid isPermaLink="false">http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=5</guid>
		<description></description>
		<content:encoded><![CDATA[Is it possible to get a graphic design professionnal workflow with open source softwares?

<img width="300" height="235" alt="death2.jpg" id="image6" src="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/2006/01/death2.jpg" />]]></content:encoded>
		<excerpt:encoded><![CDATA[]]></excerpt:encoded>
		<wp:post_id>5</wp:post_id>
		<wp:post_date><![CDATA[2006-01-20 17:59:06]]></wp:post_date>
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	<item>
		<title>Scribus 1.3</title>
		<link>http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/news/scribus-133</link>
		<pubDate>Sat, 11 Feb 2006 17:40:49 +0000</pubDate>
		<dc:creator><![CDATA[Femke]]></dc:creator>
		<guid isPermaLink="false">http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=7</guid>
		<description></description>
		<content:encoded><![CDATA[A few days ago, I installed version 1.3.3 and a quick review already shows that the screen-mouse response has come a long way since I used Scribus 1.2 to get this poster printed:
<a href="http://www.constantvzw.com/downloads/"><img src="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/2006/02/oclPoster.jpg" alt="" /></a>

Of course, using software seriously for the first time is a disorienting experience in itself, but in this case the application responded in such unexpected ways that it left me sort of hopeless about the possibility that lets say... designing a book, or doing anything more 'subtle' would be possible. With the newest version, the next project might be a lot easier to acomplish I hope.

Download available at <a href="http://www.constantvzw.com/downloads/">http://www.constantvzw.com/downloads/</a>]]></content:encoded>
		<excerpt:encoded><![CDATA[]]></excerpt:encoded>
		<wp:post_id>7</wp:post_id>
		<wp:post_date><![CDATA[2006-02-11 18:40:49]]></wp:post_date>
		<wp:post_date_gmt><![CDATA[2006-02-11 17:40:49]]></wp:post_date_gmt>
		<wp:comment_status><![CDATA[closed]]></wp:comment_status>
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		<wp:post_name><![CDATA[scribus-133]]></wp:post_name>
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			<wp:meta_value><![CDATA[a:2:{s:4:"time";i:1223532319;s:13:"related_posts";s:1268:"<ul class="related_post"><li><a href="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=547" title="Print, flip, and turn">Print, flip, and turn</a></li><li><a href="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=509" title="Vote for Scribus">Vote for Scribus</a></li><li><a href="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=495" title=" We could save the term by using it"> We could save the term by using it</a></li><li><a href="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=411" title="In the pipeline">In the pipeline</a></li><li><a href="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=408" title="Summer of Code / Season of Usability">Summer of Code / Season of Usability</a></li><li><a href="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=309" title="Multiple pages with (linked) boxes in Scribus">Multiple pages with (linked) boxes in Scribus</a></li><li><a href="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=307" title="Mute: now available in Free Software">Mute: now available in Free Software</a></li><li><a href="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=300" title="Inconsolata">Inconsolata</a></li><li><a href="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=297" title="Questions and answers [update]">Questions and answers [update]</a></li><li><a href="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=291" title="CMYK overprint">CMYK overprint</a></li></ul>";}]]></wp:meta_value>
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	<item>
		<title>Scribus Bug Reporting</title>
		<link>http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/tools/scribus-bug-reporting</link>
		<pubDate>Sun, 12 Feb 2006 17:00:04 +0000</pubDate>
		<dc:creator><![CDATA[Femke]]></dc:creator>
		<guid isPermaLink="false">http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=10</guid>
		<description></description>
		<content:encoded><![CDATA[New addiction: reading through the thousands of bug-reports on the rigourously precise Scribus bugtracking system.

<a href="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/2006/02/scribusBugtrack.png"><img src="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/2006/02/scribusBugtrack.png" alt="" width="500" /></a>
<a href="http://bugs.scribus.net/view_all_bug_page.php">http://bugs.scribus.net/view_all_bug_page.php</a>

It is somehow consoling to see those thousands of minor and major problems scroll by. We will be adding our own reports over the coming weeks (see below).
<!--more-->
<ul>
	<li>Looks like change of name in Paragraph style means as much as deleting that style. Should be prevented or not be the case.</li>
	<li>Hardly any control over selecting blocks of text in preview mode. Can't figure out why.</li>
	<li>'Paste' (text within story editor) is extremely slow; screen can freezes for up to 50 sec. before applying change.</li>
	<li>Paste from other applications (Mozilla Thunderbird, gedit, Character Map) does not work.</li>
	<li>After 'replace' has been executed, feedback should be 'Replaced x amount of elements' (not: 'Search Finished')</li>
	<li>Application of changes through Properties is completely irregular. some changes have effect, some not... some changes trail behind, others are erased... Sometimes styles are overruled by others, sometimes not.</li>
	<li>Font size, line height etc. are not forced when applied over selected text; it seems especially messy when that selection had different styles/sizes etc. to begin with. When multiple paragraphs are selected, styles are sometimes applied, sometimes not.</li>
	<li>Feedback in Properties does not reflect the actual formatting of selected text.</li>
	<li>When a block of text with more than one style applied (or having different sizes, colors etc.) is selected, the dialogue in properties would need to grey out/go blank for those specifications that are mixed. (and not suggest that all selected text has one particular size, color)</li>
	<li>It is too risky to only be able to check the result on screen (or scanning the text word by word).</li>
	<li>'Wordstyles' should be dominant over Paragraph styles and a paragraph style applied- now if f.e. a line return is removed in a paragraph on which a paragraph style applies, 'wordstyles' are removed.</li>
	<li>Changes applied through story editor seem to be more consistently applied but hard to handle because of visual feedback lacking. Also it is not possible to change line-height from there.</li>
	<li>When a paragraph style is removed under Menu&gt;Edit&gt;Paragraph styles, it remains available under Properties&gt;Style (Confusing because there is no way to check or correct these styles; they do not exist anymore. Or do they?)</li>
	<li>'No styles' produces a different effect every time. It should simply REMOVE ALL STYLES and set text to 'default style'</li>
	<li>Rendering of underlined text is very poor (line is extremely heavy)</li>
	<li>When ALL text is selected in a linked text box, ALL text should be selected... Now sometimes the whole text is made active (Copy) and sometimes not; there is no feedback available to find this out.</li>
	<li>'UNDO' does often not work; never for text corrections/changes (in Preview nor Story Editor); also not after  Select all&gt;Delete; also not after changing specifications in Properties.</li>
	<li>Line spacing can not be changed per paragraph from Properties&gt;Line Spacing (it changes line spacing in other paragraphs around it too)</li>
	<li>Outlined texts: not possible to select outline color?</li>
</ul>]]></content:encoded>
		<excerpt:encoded><![CDATA[]]></excerpt:encoded>
		<wp:post_id>10</wp:post_id>
		<wp:post_date><![CDATA[2006-02-12 18:00:04]]></wp:post_date>
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			<wp:comment_id>47948</wp:comment_id>
			<wp:comment_author><![CDATA[Lehodey]]></wp:comment_author>
			<wp:comment_author_email><![CDATA[lehodeyv@live.fr]]></wp:comment_author_email>
			<wp:comment_author_url></wp:comment_author_url>
			<wp:comment_author_IP><![CDATA[80.11.78.236]]></wp:comment_author_IP>
			<wp:comment_date><![CDATA[2011-06-16 10:28:34]]></wp:comment_date>
			<wp:comment_date_gmt><![CDATA[2011-06-16 08:28:34]]></wp:comment_date_gmt>
			<wp:comment_content><![CDATA[Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "", line 8, in ?
  File "C:/Program Files/Scribus 1.3.3.14/scripts/trait_de_coupe.py", line 2, in ?
    SetUnit(1)
NameError: name 'SetUnit' is not defined]]></wp:comment_content>
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	<item>
		<title>Bitstream Charter</title>
		<link>http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/typo/bitstream-charter</link>
		<pubDate>Sun, 12 Feb 2006 17:39:47 +0000</pubDate>
		<dc:creator><![CDATA[Femke]]></dc:creator>
		<guid isPermaLink="false">http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=11</guid>
		<description></description>
		<content:encoded><![CDATA[To my surprise <strong>Bitstream Charter</strong>, one of the few usable Open Source fonts around I know of,  is currently published on myfonts.com with the following licence: <a href="http://www.myfonts.com/viewlicense?id=315">http://www.myfonts.com/viewlicense?id=315</a>

<a href="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/2006/02/noMod.jpg"><img src="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/2006/02/noMod.thumbnail.jpg" alt="no modifications" /></a>

<a href="http://cramer.plaintext.cc:70/">Florian Cramer</a> explains what is really going on:
<blockquote>"That's true, but the license change refers to a newer version of Bitstream Charter. A copyright owner of a work is free to change the licensing terms any time, either rendering a formely free work proprietary or vice versa. But a license change can never be retroactive, i.e. it can't affect the licensing terms of a previously released version of the same work. (Same happened to SSH for example: The original SSH continues to be developed as proprietary software, whereas OpenSSH - included among others in Mac OS X and Linux - was developed on the basis of an older, free version of the original SSH package.)

An older version of Bitstream Charter was donated to the X Window system and continues to be available under the extremely liberal MIT/X11 license.  In Debian and Ubuntu, the font is part of the package "xfonts-scalable" which is in the fully free standard distribution.

(...)

The "<a href="http://scripts.sil.org/cms/scripts/page.php?site_id=nrsi&amp;item_id=Gentium&amp;_sc=1">Gentium</a>" font is another interesting typeface that just has switched to a free license.  However, the license is still under review by Debian. It's a classicist font that looks more conservative than Charter, but it offers a greater number of international glyphs."</blockquote>]]></content:encoded>
		<excerpt:encoded><![CDATA[]]></excerpt:encoded>
		<wp:post_id>11</wp:post_id>
		<wp:post_date><![CDATA[2006-02-12 18:39:47]]></wp:post_date>
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		<category domain="author" nicename="femke"><![CDATA[Femke]]></category>
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		<wp:comment>
			<wp:comment_id>45134</wp:comment_id>
			<wp:comment_author><![CDATA[Benct Philip Jonsson]]></wp:comment_author>
			<wp:comment_author_email><![CDATA[bpj@melroch.se]]></wp:comment_author_email>
			<wp:comment_author_url>http://melroch.se</wp:comment_author_url>
			<wp:comment_author_IP><![CDATA[84.217.230.69]]></wp:comment_author_IP>
			<wp:comment_date><![CDATA[2009-12-21 20:22:02]]></wp:comment_date>
			<wp:comment_date_gmt><![CDATA[2009-12-21 18:22:02]]></wp:comment_date_gmt>
			<wp:comment_content><![CDATA[So what *is* the deal?  The version of Bitstream Charter found at TUG and bundled with X11 can (still) be used as the basis for derivative works provided the copyright notice is included and the derivative work is made public under a different name?  Does this apply regardless of which country the maker of the derivative work resides in/is a citizen of?]]></wp:comment_content>
			<wp:comment_approved><![CDATA[1]]></wp:comment_approved>
			<wp:comment_type><![CDATA[]]></wp:comment_type>
			<wp:comment_parent>0</wp:comment_parent>
			<wp:comment_user_id>0</wp:comment_user_id>
		</wp:comment>
		<wp:comment>
			<wp:comment_id>45138</wp:comment_id>
			<wp:comment_author><![CDATA[OSP]]></wp:comment_author>
			<wp:comment_author_email><![CDATA[femke@constantvzw.org]]></wp:comment_author_email>
			<wp:comment_author_url>http://</wp:comment_author_url>
			<wp:comment_author_IP><![CDATA[78.29.210.207]]></wp:comment_author_IP>
			<wp:comment_date><![CDATA[2009-12-28 01:42:56]]></wp:comment_date>
			<wp:comment_date_gmt><![CDATA[2009-12-27 23:42:56]]></wp:comment_date_gmt>
			<wp:comment_content><![CDATA["You are hereby granted permission under all Bitstream propriety rights to use, copy, modify, sublicense, sell, and redistribute the 4 Bitstream Charter (r) Type 1 outline fonts and the 4 Courier Type 1 outline fonts for any purpose and without restriction; provided, that this notice is left intact on all copies of such fonts and that Bitstream's trademark is acknowledged as shown below on all unmodified copies of the 4 Charter Type 1 fonts."

So, I guess the answer is: yes!]]></wp:comment_content>
			<wp:comment_approved><![CDATA[1]]></wp:comment_approved>
			<wp:comment_type><![CDATA[]]></wp:comment_type>
			<wp:comment_parent>0</wp:comment_parent>
			<wp:comment_user_id>14</wp:comment_user_id>
		</wp:comment>
	</item>
	<item>
		<title>Gentium</title>
		<link>http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/typo/gentium</link>
		<pubDate>Sun, 12 Feb 2006 18:28:06 +0000</pubDate>
		<dc:creator><![CDATA[Femke]]></dc:creator>
		<guid isPermaLink="false">http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=13</guid>
		<description></description>
		<content:encoded><![CDATA[[If you consider using Gentium, check <a href="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=54">The politics of typography</a>]

<img src="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/2006/02/Gentium.png" alt="gentium font" />

"Gentium was driven by the need for a free, attractive, legible, high-quality font for extended Latin (and Greek and Cyrillic) use. Nothing else was available that was suitable for publishing use, so I decided to give it a try." (from: <a href="http://scripts.sil.org/cms/scripts/page.php?site_id=nrsi&item_id=Gentium_interview">interview with Victor Gaultney</a>, designer of Gentium)]]></content:encoded>
		<excerpt:encoded><![CDATA[]]></excerpt:encoded>
		<wp:post_id>13</wp:post_id>
		<wp:post_date><![CDATA[2006-02-12 19:28:06]]></wp:post_date>
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		<title>Woven silk pyjamas exchanged for blue quartz</title>
		<link>http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/typo/woven-silk-pyjamas-exchanged-for-blue-quartz</link>
		<pubDate>Mon, 20 Feb 2006 10:08:29 +0000</pubDate>
		<dc:creator><![CDATA[Femke]]></dc:creator>
		<guid isPermaLink="false">http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=17</guid>
		<description></description>
		<content:encoded><![CDATA[Instead of using the usual <em>The Quick Brown Fox jumped over the lazy dog</em>, this rather absurd text is set as default in Scribus Font Preview:

<a href="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/scribusPreview.png"><img title="scribus preview" src="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/_scribusPreview.png" alt="scribus preview" width="250" height="195" /></a>

I wonder who decided to use this particular sentence, and why?
Alternative <em>pangrams</em> to choose from: <a href="http://users.tinyonline.co.uk/gswithenbank/pangrams.htm">http://users.tinyonline.co.uk/gswithenbank/pangrams.htm</a>]]></content:encoded>
		<excerpt:encoded><![CDATA[]]></excerpt:encoded>
		<wp:post_id>17</wp:post_id>
		<wp:post_date><![CDATA[2006-02-20 11:08:29]]></wp:post_date>
		<wp:post_date_gmt><![CDATA[2006-02-20 10:08:29]]></wp:post_date_gmt>
		<wp:comment_status><![CDATA[closed]]></wp:comment_status>
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		<wp:post_name><![CDATA[woven-silk-pyjamas-exchanged-for-blue-quartz]]></wp:post_name>
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		<wp:post_parent>0</wp:post_parent>
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		<category domain="author" nicename="femke"><![CDATA[Femke]]></category>
		<category domain="post_tag" nicename="scribus"><![CDATA[Scribus]]></category>
		<category domain="category" nicename="tools"><![CDATA[Tools]]></category>
		<category domain="category" nicename="typo"><![CDATA[Type]]></category>
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	<item>
		<title>freestyle, lecture on scribus</title>
		<link>http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/news/freestyle-seminar-19th-may-2004</link>
		<pubDate>Tue, 21 Feb 2006 16:14:16 +0000</pubDate>
		<dc:creator><![CDATA[Roger]]></dc:creator>
		<guid isPermaLink="false">http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=20</guid>
		<description></description>
		<content:encoded><![CDATA[<strong>Lecture at <a href="http://pzwart.wdka.hro.nl/mdr/Seminars2/floss/">Freestyle - FLOSS In Design</a>, Piet Zwart Institute Rotterdam</strong>

<img src="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/2006/02/11floss.jpg" alt="screenshot" />

<em>During my 6 year freelance graphic design practice and 4 years study I gradually became aware of working methods in the general sense. In every aspect of my practice working structures developed, some are critically looked at, some are educated and some seemed to be accepted as they seemed to be litrally connected with my work. One of these structures I immediately accepted, is software because of their seemingly neutral qualities used for each design-solution. But did during these 10 years my work become more dependent on the possilities as presented through the programms?</em>

<em>I was asked by Matthew Fuller to design the leaflet for this seminar using only open source software. As I didn't have any experience with open source software and I needed to use a Linux computer on the Piet Zwart Institute I made before I started two descisions:
- the maximum amount of time I could spent on the design was 24 hours
- I'd keep two diaries, a formal and an emotional one. The formal one was the recording of events and the emotional one the recording of my thoughts (as a frustration/happiness index).
The following text is the offspin of these two diaries.</em>

<!--more-->
<strong>24H OF OPEN SOURCE</strong>

actors:
Roger Teeuwen, graphic designer; first experience with open source software
Matthew Fuller, course director Piet Zwart Institute
Femke Snelting, curriculum an research development Piet Zwart Institute
Calum Selkrik (Cal), systems administrator Piet Zwart Institute
Michael Murtaugh, mentor Piet Zwart Institute
Todd Matsumoto, student Piet Zwart Institute

<strong><em>31 march 2004</em></strong>

11.00
<em>Calum set me up, made an user account on a linux computer.
I'm started with three open source programms:
The Gimp (alternative Adobe Photoshop),
Scribus (alternative QuarkXpress) and
Sodipodi (alternative Adobe Illustrator)</em>

<img src="http://www.rogerteeuwen.nl/weblog3/archives/1.jpg" border="0" alt="1.jpg" width="400" height="300" />

12.45
<em>Talked with Femke about the difference between open source and proprietary (copyright+), that new functions and opening the program language are the most potential area's. For example dreamweaver (which is not open source); connection of visual and code, in this programm the possibility exists to use ór a visual-based way ór a code-based of developing a site. As a user you can switch between the two.</em>

<img src="http://www.rogerteeuwen.nl/weblog3/archives/2floss.jpg" border="0" alt="2floss.jpg" width="400" height="300" />

13.11
<em>So language and definition are essential in programme development. But why base the program you are developing on existing software rather than think about ways to redefine workspace or software alltogether? If the code is visible during the time you are using software the possibility to change and experiment appears. The connection between language, code and form becomes more explicit and therefor the user is more aware of the possibilities ánd more aware of the way his or her actions are defined through software.</em>

13.15
<em>Scribus is really inlogical when you are used to work with xpress. There is a disconnection between textinput and the textfield, but only when creating a textfield, after doing this it's defined and you can change and activate the field.
A pdf writer seems to be incorperated, so publishing should be possible. This is one of my biggest concerns as a graphic designer!</em>

<img src="http://www.rogerteeuwen.nl/weblog3/archives/3floss.jpg" border="0" alt="3floss.jpg" width="400" height="300" />

13.24
<em>Found a mail when doing some research which seems to be the start of the development of 'The Gimp'.</em>
Date: july 29th 1995
Suppose someone decided to write a graphical image manipulation program (akin to photoshop). Out of curiousity (and maybe something else), I have 2 questions:
What kind of features should it have? (tools, selections, filters, etc.)
What file formats should it support? (jpeg, gif, tiff, etc.)

<img src="http://www.rogerteeuwen.nl/weblog3/archives/4floss.jpg" border="0" alt="4floss.jpg" width="400" height="300" />

13.42
<em>In the Gimp there is an option to write scripts and to incorperate them in the programme!
Computer litracy demands a new way of reading, the language is sometimes so specific and needs so much knowledge it's hard to find an answer for the question you formulated!</em>

13.53
<em>Need the the open source user manual for Scribus! The user manual isn't functioning!</em>

<img src="http://www.rogerteeuwen.nl/weblog3/archives/5floss.jpg" border="0" alt="5floss.jpg" width="400" height="300" />

13.58
<em>During some kerning actions in Scribus the programm crashed! Of course I didn't save my document! </em>

14.03
<em>Selecting a text in Scribus really takes a while, and it feels unstable!</em>

15.35
<em>Imported my first picture in Scribus, also feels unstable!</em>

15.38
<em>Switching to Sodipodi, really looks like a stripped version of Adobe Illustrator: the functions and interface resemble. Why are visual elements not included when developing open source software? Every programme looks like a old copy of Microsoft Word.</em>

<img src="http://www.rogerteeuwen.nl/weblog3/archives/6floss.jpg" border="0" alt="6floss.jpg" width="400" height="300" />

15.49
<em>I'm actually considering to use paper again to write idea's down!
This work-enviroment feels so new and so inefficient!</em>

15.59
<em>What is software? A collection of definitions and functions which control your behaviour and actions? Or a way of structuring and capturing ideas?
What should software be?</em>

16.11
<em>Switching to The Gimp. </em>

16.30
<em>Made my first collage, an open source collected image.</em>

<img src="http://www.rogerteeuwen.nl/weblog3/archives/7floss.jpg" border="0" alt="7floss.jpg" width="400" height="317" />

16.45
<em>Thinking about the way software is presented when purchasing. Could there be some sort of a scedule or map which explains why open source is a legible option? As a visualisation of the pro's and con's of open source.</em>

<img src="http://www.rogerteeuwen.nl/weblog3/archives/8floss.jpg" border="0" alt="8floss.jpg" width="400" height="300" />

16.58
<em>Needed Cal's help to print a document from Scribus.
Printed at 17.21, turned out you need to make a pdf from the document and than run GGV PostScript Viewer and print from this application.
So much trouble to print a document. Intresting though that Cal thought the document (which was only a test) had a meaning and was a design! If you need to put a lot of effort in making a print you seem to need a reward!</em>

<img src="http://www.rogerteeuwen.nl/weblog3/archives/9floss.jpg" border="0" alt="9floss.jpg" width="400" height="300" />

17.31
<em>The Gimp crashed. Lost an schematic on how open source could be visualised! The programme name has (unstable) behind it, this is correct!</em>

17.45
<em>Partially remade the lost image, this is a way of learning a program!
(not an appealing one though)</em>

17.45
<em>Back to Sodipodi and Scribus to remake the Gimp pattern as a test. It seems patterns and structures aren't as easy to create as in Adobe Illustrator or even Quarkxpress! A lot of features which I use a lot are ór really hidden ór not present.</em>

17.54
<em>Sodipodi crashed when attempting to step and repeat.
So easy and so complicated!</em>

18.06
<em>I start to feel a connection with The Gimp, maybe because I get tired or maybe because it's the only application so far in which I'm succesful in my attempt to create a image...
I do get constantly confronted with the different way of functionality.
Got the feeling I could even be more efficient in Texteditor (Macintosh) than in all open source software combined! At least in terms of speed and meaning!</em>

<em>Definitions of my existing work-enviroment:
Proposal for a action based work-enviroment:
Q: what do you want to do during this session?
are you going to use text?
what kind of typographic elements do you need?
are you going to use images?
are you going to use forms?
pixel?
vector?
what would you like for a color today?
what kind of sound would you like to hear?
do you need a source of information?
if yes
what kind of subject are you interested in?
repeat answer if you have multiple intrests</em>

<em>Typographic:
what kind of typefaces do you need?
do you want to choose from a database?
if yes: schreef or schreefloos, postscript or truetype
what kind of sizes are you going to use?</em>

14 april 2004

12.18
<em>Cal helped me getting started.</em>

12.19
<em>Decided I'd focus on Scribus to design the leaflet because it's closed source rival Quarkxpress is the programme I use the most often. </em>

12.38
<em>Can't find scribus, need Cal.</em>

13.06
<em>Using terminal to start scribus (instructions cal).</em>

<img src="http://www.rogerteeuwen.nl/weblog3/archives/10floss.jpg" border="0" alt="10floss.jpg" width="400" height="300" />

13.45
<em>Talked with Matthew about the time schedule, he suggested I'd finish the design today. I'll start with the information side first and concentrate on the typography!</em>

13.54
<em>Installed bitstream vera, one of the only open source typefaces I could find.</em>

14.12
<em>Can't seem to find a&amp;u in scribus, seems no typographic subtilities are possible. Why the same typographic lack of possibilities as in Microsoft Word? Unbelievable that the 'alternative programme' isn't precise in the key element of a dtp programme, typographic refinement!</em>

<img src="http://www.rogerteeuwen.nl/weblog3/archives/11floss.jpg" border="0" alt="11floss.jpg" width="400" height="300" />

14.15
<em>Interesting, I can make buttons in scribus which allow me to import or use other actions when activating. Could be a very interesting automatisation for correcting large amounts of texts! This is an example of a functionality which I hope(d) to find more often when using 'alternative' software.</em>

14.45
<em>Trying to link two textboxes. I figured out the difference between active and passive text boxes but the actual linking doesn't work (annotation properties)!</em>

14.55
<em>I actually think a programme like Scribus is much closer to a writer (programmer, etc.) than a designer, much more litrally a text-editor. It looks it's more the other way around, thinking through content about the format. </em>

<img src="http://www.rogerteeuwen.nl/weblog3/archives/12floss.jpg" border="0" alt="12floss.jpg" width="400" height="300" />

15.03
<em>Because of the last statement I suddenly feel I understand the software more, and I'm more and more looking for functions which I use a lot in Xpress in Scribus and I'm much more succesful is my quest!</em>

15.16
<em>Are there connections or explanations possible which emphasise the 'cross-influence' between the different programms, so open and closed source combined? As a translation of the best of both worlds, the user specific elements of the closed source ánd the idea's and possibilities of open source.</em>

16.13
<em>Matthew suggests I should also think about the programmer/user relation (reacting on programme/programme and profession/crossover relations).</em>

16.48
<em>Trying to print the document, no luck, need Cal.
Also found out that when exporting to pdf there is a fontproblem.
Why is there always a problem with printing? Doesn't give me confidence for the final printing of the leaflet!</em>

17.07
<em>Pdf works, printing is possible.
But it's impossible to print a different paper size than A4!</em>

17.10
<em>Talked with Cal about open en closed source programmedefinition-combinations, using his specific knowledge and using freshmeat.net</em>

<img src="http://www.rogerteeuwen.nl/weblog3/archives/13floss.jpg" border="0" alt="13floss.jpg" width="400" height="300" />

18.15
<em>Talked with Femke about the combinations and concluded combinations between writer, programmer, artist, designer should be more self-explanitory.</em>

In the evening I tried to make combinations with 4 definitions. I ended with 12 programme-combinations and 12 definition-combinations.

15 april 2004

9.29
<em>Starting up.</em>

9.42
<em>Continued working on definition-combinations.
I've got two sets of definitions, programms and users.
How can I combine these and make sure it's readable ánd on the other hand stress the difference in meaning?</em>

<img src="http://www.rogerteeuwen.nl/weblog3/archives/14floss.jpg" border="0" alt="14floss.jpg" width="400" height="300" />

9.46
<em>I've got two sets of 12 combinations, the trick is now how to make the difference between programms and user-definitions visible.</em>

10.10
<em>Talked with Todd about the concept of the flyer and tested if the combinations were readable, and they were! The programms were much easier than the users but I think they should function as the bridge between the two.</em>

<img src="http://www.rogerteeuwen.nl/weblog3/archives/15floss.jpg" border="0" alt="15floss.jpg" width="400" height="300" />

11.11
<em>Finished with both sides, need a print now.</em>

11.15
<em>When I export the document to pdf or postscript file the linked textboxes dissapear and gradients turn upside down! This is a reason not to use Scribus, really bad for you're confidence when making a 300 pages book if you know texts can dissapear and things can change!</em>

<img src="http://www.rogerteeuwen.nl/weblog3/archives/16floss.jpg" border="0" alt="16floss.jpg" width="400" height="266" />

11.17
<em>Cal suggested that I should save the file as a postscript document and than use the viewer to check and print.</em>

11.35
<em>Cal updated Scribus in an attempt to solve the problem, have to wait a few minutes until its compiled and I can test it.</em>

12.05
<em>Seems linked textboxes are the problem, so i'll make them by hand, seperated!
Which is a strange job, compare it to use typograpy in photoshop. I recognise this with second year students which I teach. The students without experience also use the programme they know best to do everything, even if the programme is not made for it.</em>

12.13
<em>Scribus isn't made for typograpy that's for sure, when I printed the document you immediately see a sort of 'Microsoft Word' feel. This lack of specific quality is problematic if it's aim is to be an alternative for dtp programms which do have these qualities.</em>

<img src="http://www.rogerteeuwen.nl/weblog3/archives/17floss.jpg" border="0" alt="17floss.jpg" width="400" height="271" />

20 april 2004

11.30
<em>Today is the last day of the open source leaflet project. A few things remain to do, the corrections, the logo's and the final proof.
I'm actually getting more and more used to Scribus, or am I getting sentimental?</em>

11.55
<em>Finished the corrections and scribus crashes!</em>

11.56
<em>Started again with the corrections.</em>

12.35
<em>Finished the corrections for the second time, but I can't finish the leaflet today because of a missing logo.</em>

21 april 2004

11.45
<em>Final corrections and importing the last logo.</em>

<img src="http://www.rogerteeuwen.nl/weblog3/archives/18floss.jpg" border="0" alt="18floss.jpg" width="400" height="300" />

11.55
<em>Printing problem, the logo's seem to change into black squares when printing, they are visible on screen?!
Maybe the problem is in the image boxes?
Printing without image boxes.
No change
Maybe the problem is in the proportional scaling which I turned on?
Printing with proportional scaling turned off.
No change
Maybe the problem is in scaling in general?
Printing without scaled images.
No change
Maybe the problem is in textrunaround?
Printing with textrunaround turned off.
No change
Maybe the problem is in the file format?
Yes, there is a problem importing tiff, when using eps the problem is solved! Another Scribus mistery!</em>

12.35
<em>Printing final flyer, doing some last minute detailing.</em>

12.42
<em>Mailing the pdf to richard (V2_) and now cross my fingers that the printer can cope with the document!</em>

22 april 2004

<em>What I was afraid for becomes reality. When the printer test-prints the document a lot of problems appear: spaces become squares, numbers, points, comma's, dashes etc. dissapear!</em>
Following a transcription of the e-mail contact between myself and Jasper, responsible for prepress at the printer.

<img src="http://www.rogerteeuwen.nl/weblog3/archives/19floss.jpg" border="0" alt="19floss.jpg" width="400" height="300" />

__________________________________________________________________

From:     Roger Teeuwen
Sent:     Thursday, April 22, 2004 14:47 PM
To:     Jasper de Koster
Subject:     Op verzoek van V2_

&lt;&gt;

Dag Jasper,
Hierbij opnieuw de pdf, hopelijk gaat het nu goed.
Als ik hier print gaat alles ok!
Groet en succes, Roger

<em>april 22 14:47
Hi Jasper,
Attached again the pdf, hopefully it will work now!
When I print in my studio everything looks ok?!
Regards Roger</em>

_________________________________________________________________

On 22-04-2004 15:25, "Jasper de Koster"  wrote:&gt;

Hoi Roger

Nee, dit gaat niet goed. Het blijven vierkantjes, alle spaties. Via welk
programma heb je dit gedistilleerd?
Pagina 1 gaat wel goed, overigens. Kun je het omzetten naar
lettercontouren
in
illustrator?

groet, jasper

<em>april 22 15:25
Hi Roger
No this doesn't work either. The spaces remain squares, áll spaces.
Which programm did you use to destilate this?
Page number one is ok.
Can you convert the document to Illustrator and use lettercontours?
Regards Jasper</em>

<img src="http://www.rogerteeuwen.nl/weblog3/archives/20floss.jpg" border="0" alt="20floss.jpg" width="400" height="300" />

__________________________________________________________________

----------
From:     Roger Teeuwen
Sent:     Thursday, April 22, 2004 15:38 PM
To:     Jasper de Koster
Subject:     Re: Op verzoek van V2_

Wat ik trouwens niet begrijp is dat als ik bij mij op mijn laserprinter
print alles helemaal goed gaat?! Beschadigd het document tijdens mailen?
Print jij gewoon of draai je direct een film uit?
Gr Roger

<em>april 22 15:38
Hi Jasper,
What I don't understand is that when I print the document on my laserprinter at 1200 dpi everything looks ok. Does the document get damaged during mail? Do you print paper or directly to film?
Regards Roger</em>

__________________________________________________________________

On 22-04-2004 16:19, "Jasper de Koster"  wrote:

Hoi Roger

Misschien print jij niet via een laserprinter of belichter? Ik heb dit
probleem nog nooit eerder gehad. Zowel op film als op onze laserbelichter
worden alle spaties vierkantjes. De asci code van het spatieteken in Linux
is
kennelijk een vierkantje in postscript level 2.

Ik probeer photoshop wel als deze pdf niet lukt.

groet, jasper

<em>april 22 16:19
Hi Roger,
Maybe you don't print using a laserprinter or a film-exposer?
I've never had this problem before. In both the laserprinter and the film-exposer I get the same errors. The asci code for a space on a Linux is appearently a square in postscript level 2.
I'll try photoshop if this pdf doesn't work.
Regards Jasper</em>

__________________________________________________________________

----------
From:     Roger Teeuwen
Sent:     Thursday, April 22, 2004 16:35 PM
To:     Jasper de Koster
Subject:     Re: Op verzoek van V2_

Hi Jasper,
Toch wel, hp laserwriter 5000 op 1200 dpi geeft geen probleem hier!?
Heel erg vreemd...
Hoe zit het met kwaliteitsverlies als je het photoshopbestand gebruikt?
Gr Roger

<em>april 22 16:35
Hi Jasper,
I use an hp laserwriter 5000 on 1200 dpi and I don't get any problems here?!
Really strange....
How is the qualityloss when using a photoshop rastering?
Regards Roger</em>

__________________________________________________________________

On 22-04-2004 17:59, "Jasper de Koster"  wrote:

Hi Roger

Ik ben er nu uit. Ik maak een combinatie van de beste elementen uit de
opties.
De logo's uit de eerstaangeleverde PDF, het kopje uit het Tiff bestand, de
tekst uit een PDF bestand, dat ik heb gemaakt door het originele PDF bestand
als PS te bewaren en opnieuw te distillen.

De fout ligt kennelijk in jouw distiller, want opnieuw gedistilleerd
verdwijnen de vierkantjes (maar helaas ook de datum en de cijfers).

gecompliceerd, dus

Onderstaand "monster van frankenstein" PDF komt bij mij netjes uit de
printer.
En ook (hoogstwaarschijnlijk) mooi op film.

groet, jasper

&lt;

&gt;<em>april 22 17:59
Hi Roger,</em>

<em>I've got the solution. I'll make a combination between the best of both options.
I'll use the logo's from the pdf, the head from the tiff, the text from a pdf file which I made trough saving the original pdf file as an ps file and than destilling it again.</em>

<em>I think the error is in you're destiller, because when I re-destille you're file the squares dissapear (unfortunately also the numers).</em>

<em>So pretty complicated.</em>

<em>The 'monster of Frankenstein'-pdf on the bottom does work on my printer and problably also on film.</em>

<em>Regards Jasper</em>

trycombipdfandTiff.pdf
<img src="http://www.rogerteeuwen.nl/weblog3/archives/21floss.jpg" border="0" alt="21floss.jpg" width="400" height="550" />

__________________________________________________________________

----------
From:     Roger Teeuwen
Sent:     Thursday, April 22, 2004 18:21 PM
To:     Jasper de Koster
Subject:     Re: Op verzoek van V2_

Hi Jasper,
Ingewikkeld! En nog een probleem, in de magenta teksten op de tweede pagina
onderaan (sprekers en colophon) valt een en ander weg (leestekens en
cijfers!). Vergelijk met tif.
Helpt het voor een betere kwaliteit als ik je een tiff op 600 dpi stuur?
Dus nog niet ok!
Groet Roger

<em>april 22 18:21</em>

<em>Hi Jasper,
Complicated! And another problem, in the magenta text on the second page at the bottom (speakers and colophon) information is lost (numbers and so on). Compare to the tiff.
Does it help for the quality if I send you a tiff on 600 dpi?
So still not ok!
Regards Roger
</em>
__________________________________________________________________

On 22-04-2004 18:35, "Jasper de Koster"  wrote:

Hoi Roger

Oei, wat een klus

Ik denk dat het niet veel uitmaakt. Het blijven gerasterde letters op die
manier.
Ik ga wel voor 70 lijns tiff die je eerder gestuurd hebt.
Of ik gebruik voor sprekers en colophon de tiff,  net als bij de tekst
bovenaan.

Tenzij jij nog een ander soort PDF kunt aanleveren...

groet, jasper

<em>april 22 18:35
Hi Roger,</em>

<em>My god what a project!</em>

<em>I don't think it will make a difference. The letters will stay rasterised!
I'll use the 70 lines tiff you sent before.
Or I'll use the tiff for the colophon and speakers, just as the text on the upper side.</em>

<em>Unless you can deliver me another pdf...</em>

<em>Regards Jasper</em>

<img src="http://www.rogerteeuwen.nl/weblog3/archives/22floss.jpg" border="0" alt="22floss.jpg" width="400" height="550" />

__________________________________________________________________

----------
From:     Roger Teeuwen
Sent:     Thursday, April 22, 2004 19:08 PM
To:     Jasper de Koster
Subject:     Re: Op verzoek van V2_

Nee, een ander soort pdf gaat mij niet meer lukken.
Hoeveel minder van kwaliteit zijn gerasterde letters?
Volgens mij moet jij beslissen of je het bestand verder gaat plakken en
knippen, wat het beste resultaat is.
Laat even weten waar je uiteindelijk voor gaat.
Gr Roger

<em>april 22 19:08</em>

<em>No, I can't deliver you another pdf.
How much does the quality decrease if the letters are rasterised?
I think you have to decide if you'll use the 'collage' file or the tiff, which one the best result is.
Let me know which you will use.
Regards Roger</em>

__________________________________________________________________

Van:       Jasper@Tripiti.nl
Onderwerp:     RE: Op verzoek van V2_
Datum:     23 april 2004 9:13:46 GMT+02:00
Aan:       rtgo@xs4all.nl

Ik ga dan voor de Tiff versie, omdat ik geen vertrouwen heb in de PDF. Er kunnen cijfers en interpunctie zijn weggevallen of veranderd. Dit risico wil ik niet lopen.

Je kunt wel nog films controleren als je wilt, we drukken vanmiddag.

groet, jasper

<em>april 23 9:13
Ok, I'll use the tiff, because I lost all my faith in the pdf. Numbers or spaces can dissapear or are changed. I don't want to risk this.
You can come and check the films if you want to, we'll print this afternoon.</em>

<em>Regards, Jasper</em>

__________________________________________________________________

<em>So in the end, despite the efforts of the printer, the open source programme 'Scribus' was unsuccesful in accomplishing one of it's main goals. Beïng an altenative for existing dtp-programms such as Quarkxpress or Indesign. As a designer I need to be sure that the document I create is printable, if it isn't I can't use it as a tool.</em>

<em>Through using open source software I did rethink the tools I use and the enviroment and work structures which are created by these tools. And I think this is an important issue which is crucial for all designers, artists etc. So I think one of the main goals of open source software development should be to make the programms formally usable, so designers, writers, artists will start using them.</em>

<em>On the frontside of the leaflet I stress the combinations of different positions. The different positions become more and more interrelated and I think the real gain in development will be in exploring these combinations. So let's start thinking about the way a designer, writer, artist and programmer can contribute together from each specific perspective and knowledge to the development of the software.</em>]]></content:encoded>
		<excerpt:encoded><![CDATA[]]></excerpt:encoded>
		<wp:post_id>20</wp:post_id>
		<wp:post_date><![CDATA[2006-02-21 17:14:16]]></wp:post_date>
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		<wp:post_name><![CDATA[freestyle-seminar-19th-may-2004]]></wp:post_name>
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		<category domain="author" nicename="roger"><![CDATA[Roger]]></category>
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		<wp:comment>
			<wp:comment_id>37327</wp:comment_id>
			<wp:comment_author><![CDATA[Pierre]]></wp:comment_author>
			<wp:comment_author_email><![CDATA[pierre@speculoos.com]]></wp:comment_author_email>
			<wp:comment_author_url>http://</wp:comment_author_url>
			<wp:comment_author_IP><![CDATA[81.169.52.112]]></wp:comment_author_IP>
			<wp:comment_date><![CDATA[2008-06-06 12:41:51]]></wp:comment_date>
			<wp:comment_date_gmt><![CDATA[2008-06-06 11:41:51]]></wp:comment_date_gmt>
			<wp:comment_content><![CDATA[Really interesting. Of course, it's a real (Femke's paradign) 'design with constrains' but it also talk very precisely about design decisions when software is not helping anymore. The slow and painfull way make possible for every step to be described, like a normal skillful work in a fluent software but decomposed in slow motion. I think every designer can recognize himself in that erratic journey.

(Waiting in an airport for the level of smogness to lower a bit, the plane has already proceed with two attempts to land without success. Even if the situation is inconvenient, always astonished to see so much people shouting, really not willing to accept that the technique can not *always* smooth natural movements. Maybe a bit like when a software resist!)

(Using that free time to finally read all the posts unread from this blog!)]]></wp:comment_content>
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			<wp:comment_parent>0</wp:comment_parent>
			<wp:comment_user_id>7</wp:comment_user_id>
		</wp:comment>
	</item>
	<item>
		<title>Open Source softwares on Mac OSX</title>
		<link>http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/news/open-source-softwares-on-osx</link>
		<pubDate>Wed, 22 Feb 2006 19:21:44 +0000</pubDate>
		<dc:creator><![CDATA[Harrisson]]></dc:creator>
		<guid isPermaLink="false">http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=23</guid>
		<description></description>
		<content:encoded><![CDATA[<img width="77" height="96" alt="logo eppla.png" id="image32" src="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/2006/02/logo%20eppla.thumbnail.png" />

Since Adobe products have a almost monopoly position in the field of design softwares, the question of independance of thought and works is set. Keeping independance of thought goes with keeping freedom of tools.
It is possible to work on free licence open source softwares (FLOSS) on a mac. It's not easy because it's an emerging practice, it is confusing because the education we had on popular professional softwares is different than the programmer culture from which those soft are coming from. Some softs are more developped than others, but a whole suite of print tools virtually exists.

Those softs are:

<strong>GIMP</strong>
The equivalent of Photoshop. It is supposed to be at least as good as "shop".
It is very easy to install.
<a title="gimp link" href="http://www.gimp.com">www.gimp.com</a>
<a title="gimp link" target="_blank" href="http://www.gimp.org/macintosh/">www.gimp.org/macintosh/</a>

<strong>Inkscape</strong>
It is the equivalent of Illustrator.
<a target="_blank" title="inkscape link" href="http://www.inkscape.org/">www.inkscape.org/</a>

<strong>FontForge</strong>
It is a font editor. Seems complete.

<a target="_blank" title="fontforge link" href="http://fontforge.sourceforge.net/">http://fontforge.sourceforge.net/</a>

<strong>Scribus</strong>
Is the layout software. Looks a bit like old Quark Xpress.
<a title="Scribus link" target="_blank" href="http://aqua.scribus.net/">http://aqua.scribus.net/</a>

<em>To install and run those softwares (except scribus), you need to install X11 first
X11 is on the OS 10.4 system cd:
system - installation - packages > X11User.pkg
or in the download section at apple (please sign in):
<a title="x11 link" target="_blank" href="http://www.apple.com/downloads/macosx/apple/x11formacosx.html">http://www.apple.com/downloads/macosx/apple/x11formacosx.html</a></em>

<em>X11, it is like the system 9 under system 10. The soft is launched under a system in a system. When you work with those soft, the X11 interface (a bar on the top of the screen) stays. It is a bit confusing but you get used to it. Discipline against habits... (If you "apple-Q", you quit X11)
The other major change, at first use, is that they need the use of the Command key instead of the apple one. This is very annoying for fingerplace. </em>]]></content:encoded>
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		<wp:post_id>23</wp:post_id>
		<wp:post_date><![CDATA[2006-02-22 20:21:44]]></wp:post_date>
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		<wp:post_name><![CDATA[open-source-softwares-on-osx]]></wp:post_name>
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		<title>Otlet&#039;s drawings</title>
		<link>http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/?p=1473</link>
		<pubDate>Mon, 30 Nov -0001 00:00:00 +0000</pubDate>
		<dc:creator><![CDATA[Pierre]]></dc:creator>
		<guid isPermaLink="false">http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=1473</guid>
		<description></description>
		<content:encoded><![CDATA[A quick recreation
otlet drawings
presented in shy powerpoint distance
each illustration seem to speak on itself
the missing appliance or device is represented as a rectangle, as a projection space
according to the archivist, these caming from 1000 boxes from the Otlet
image
meta language / not
in comparison of Neurath/arndt direct images
see the work of person doing thesis on it]]></content:encoded>
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		<wp:post_id>1473</wp:post_id>
		<wp:post_date><![CDATA[2010-11-08 23:21:26]]></wp:post_date>
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		<title>Bastard Culture</title>
		<link>http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/?p=4234</link>
		<pubDate>Mon, 30 Nov -0001 00:00:00 +0000</pubDate>
		<dc:creator><![CDATA[OSP]]></dc:creator>
		<guid isPermaLink="false">http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=4234</guid>
		<description></description>
		<content:encoded><![CDATA[Reading ]]></content:encoded>
		<excerpt:encoded><![CDATA[]]></excerpt:encoded>
		<wp:post_id>4234</wp:post_id>
		<wp:post_date><![CDATA[2010-03-05 14:46:01]]></wp:post_date>
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		<title>License Week</title>
		<link>http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/?p=5845</link>
		<pubDate>Mon, 30 Nov -0001 00:00:00 +0000</pubDate>
		<dc:creator><![CDATA[OSP]]></dc:creator>
		<guid isPermaLink="false">http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=5845</guid>
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		<wp:post_id>5845</wp:post_id>
		<wp:post_date><![CDATA[2011-02-11 14:19:34]]></wp:post_date>
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		<title>Useful ideas</title>
		<link>http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/?p=5854</link>
		<pubDate>Mon, 30 Nov -0001 00:00:00 +0000</pubDate>
		<dc:creator><![CDATA[OSP]]></dc:creator>
		<guid isPermaLink="false">http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=5854</guid>
		<description></description>
		<content:encoded><![CDATA[[similetimeline]

"One of the most important documents a project can have is some kind of elaboration of what the maintainers want to see happen in the future" writes Dave Neary. While it is important to make sure Roadmaps can turn into an impossible and endless to-do-list,  

http://blogs.gnome.org/bolsh/2011/02/07/drawing-up-a-roadmap/]]></content:encoded>
		<excerpt:encoded><![CDATA[]]></excerpt:encoded>
		<wp:post_id>5854</wp:post_id>
		<wp:post_date><![CDATA[2011-02-20 03:01:15]]></wp:post_date>
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			<wp:meta_value><![CDATA[{{unknown}}]]></wp:meta_value>
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		<title>Hey ya</title>
		<link>http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/?p=6345</link>
		<pubDate>Mon, 30 Nov -0001 00:00:00 +0000</pubDate>
		<dc:creator><![CDATA[Alexandre]]></dc:creator>
		<guid isPermaLink="false">http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=6345</guid>
		<description></description>
		<content:encoded><![CDATA[Hello ! C'est Hélène, stagiaire chez OSP. 
Glad to be here and hope learning a lot of thing! ]]></content:encoded>
		<excerpt:encoded><![CDATA[]]></excerpt:encoded>
		<wp:post_id>6345</wp:post_id>
		<wp:post_date><![CDATA[2011-05-02 17:34:43]]></wp:post_date>
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		<title>populated</title>
		<link>http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/?p=6366</link>
		<pubDate>Mon, 30 Nov -0001 00:00:00 +0000</pubDate>
		<dc:creator><![CDATA[OSP]]></dc:creator>
		<guid isPermaLink="false">http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=6366</guid>
		<description></description>
		<content:encoded><![CDATA[[gallery link="file" orderby="rand"]]]></content:encoded>
		<excerpt:encoded><![CDATA[]]></excerpt:encoded>
		<wp:post_id>6366</wp:post_id>
		<wp:post_date><![CDATA[2011-05-09 03:44:58]]></wp:post_date>
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		<title>LGM 2011 remix</title>
		<link>http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/?p=6385</link>
		<pubDate>Mon, 30 Nov -0001 00:00:00 +0000</pubDate>
		<dc:creator><![CDATA[OSP]]></dc:creator>
		<guid isPermaLink="false">http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=6385</guid>
		<description></description>
		<content:encoded><![CDATA[<a href="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/StudioXX-workshop01.jpg"><img src="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/StudioXX-workshop01-400x266.jpg" alt="" title="StudioXX-workshop01" width="400" height="266" class="alignleft size-medium wp-image-6387" /></a>]]></content:encoded>
		<excerpt:encoded><![CDATA[]]></excerpt:encoded>
		<wp:post_id>6385</wp:post_id>
		<wp:post_date><![CDATA[2011-05-16 15:23:29]]></wp:post_date>
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		<title>#1 ImagMagick </title>
		<link>http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/?p=6394</link>
		<pubDate>Mon, 30 Nov -0001 00:00:00 +0000</pubDate>
		<dc:creator><![CDATA[hh]]></dc:creator>
		<guid isPermaLink="false">http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=6394</guid>
		<description></description>
		<content:encoded><![CDATA[<a rel="attachment wp-att-6399" href="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?attachment_id=6399"><img class="alignnone size-thumbnail wp-image-6399" src="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/monanimation1-100x100.gif" alt="" width="100" height="100" /></a>]]></content:encoded>
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		<wp:post_id>6394</wp:post_id>
		<wp:post_date><![CDATA[2011-05-16 16:36:23]]></wp:post_date>
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		<title>Free Culture Needs Free Tools</title>
		<link>http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/?p=6520</link>
		<pubDate>Mon, 30 Nov -0001 00:00:00 +0000</pubDate>
		<dc:creator><![CDATA[OSP]]></dc:creator>
		<guid isPermaLink="false">http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=6520</guid>
		<description></description>
		<content:encoded><![CDATA[&lt;h1&gt;Imposition (a romance of many dimensions)&lt;/h1&gt;

&lt;p&gt;In the transformation from the un-dimensional space of a book as a data object and the four-dimensional experience of reading, there are many dimensions to be overcome.&lt;/p&gt;
'Pre-bound inflexible objects'

Toonloop: Fold 1

Imposition is the cartographic work of projecting multiple pages onto a sheet of paper, before it can be folded, gathered and bound into the correct order.This both prozaic and imaginative work  will function as a thread through the following 15 mins.
From this world to another
[FLATLAND]

LibriVox Flatland
http://librivox.org/flatland-a-romance-of-many-dimensions-by-edwin-abbott-abbott/

Flatland: A Romance of Many Dimensions is an 1884 satirical novella by the English schoolmaster Edwin Abbott Abbott. Writing pseudonymously as "A Square",[1] Abbott used the fictional two-dimensional world of Flatland to offer pointed observations on the social hierarchy of Victorian culture.

Gutenberg project
1971 Deliberate avoiding of fixity, of belonging to a medium spawned off many subprojects

33,000 free ebooks to read on your PC, iPad, Kindle, Sony Reader, iPhone, Android or other portable device.

From the Gutenberg project:
anything that can be entered into a computer can be reproduced indefinitely ... what Michael termed "Replicator Technology" The concept of Replicator Technology is simple; once a book or any other item (including pictures, sounds, and even 3-D items can be stored in a computer), then any number of copies can and will be available. Everyone in the world, or even not in this world (given satellite transmission) can have a copy of a book that has been entered into a computer.

[P 62]

Needs to be ascii!!

[FLATLAND.TXT]

[RepRap Project, which aims at creating a self-replicating machine.]



Flatland: Ascii conversions // descriptions. Access to source code. Promiscuous culture of the book.
Obviously essential to have pictures

[P 62]
[PLAY READERS NOTE]

STOP IT
How software imagines a book
Aldus Pagemaker: Page border

→ outsourced to panel

Quarkxpress: Page palette
Adobe InDesign: Page panel
Scribus: Arrange pages


Ward Cunningham, inventor of the wiki once said that If you can't  keep five things in your head at one time and make a decision, try keeping three things in  your head.

PrintParties: 19 steps

Print Parties are irregular public performances we organise when we feel the need to report on what we discovered and where we’ve been; as anti-heroes of our own adventures we open up our practice in a way that seems infectious. We make a point of presenting a new experiment, of producing something printed and also something edible on site each time; this mix of ingredients seems to work best. Print Parties are how we keep contact with our fellow designers who are interested in our journey but have sometimes difficulty following us into the exotic territory of BoF, Version Control and GPL3.

19 steps

Unfolding the imposition process in as many detailed steps as possible

Psnup [1][2][3]

But also more sophisiticated PodoFoImpose instruction: step by step (Lua)

[SHOW PLAN]
instructions are a notation system, a choreography for making a sheet into a page

read instructions
The sheet and the page
Laidout: Tom Lechner
Laidout: folding a ball

Sheet is the term used to indicate an imposed sheet of paper (the "medium") that contains one or more source pages imposed onto both sides of the sheet. (Technically, each sheet consists of two sheet sides, with each side being represented in the final imposed document by a single PDF page, which happens to consist of multiple other PDF pages superimposed onto it.)

[KINROSS SLIDE]

Robin Kinross writes in his text A4 and before:

One might suggest that it is within the nature of a sheet to be folded. This is after all one of the ideas behind the codex-form, the common book form. (...)
I want to suggest, tentatively, another fundamental consideration: as well as being folded, the destiny of a sheet is to be cut, and it may be that we make sheets of a certain size, knowing that they will be cut to a smaller size.

A sheet becomes a page only through folding, trimming and cutting.

Last sunday we drew  a book.
675 417 km2 pour Luce
scale 1:385142
interval : 30 m
strokes : 0.05 pt
16 bound sections
cover : green cardboard 300 g + clothed back
1 single copy
Binding, compiling
[PZI]

Small budget, many students … POD
500 different copies
installation
disappeared

=======================

From sourcecode to an executable, from ascii text to book.

Free content such as Gutenberg allows you to look at the source code but process through a compiler, which translates the high-level language instructions into an object .
Imposition is a proposition – to see the way design and books as a form of converting between media and spaces.
It is essential this is not a onew way street. Generating many intermediate products that digital production liberated from the corset of the traditional editorial workflow, sourcecode - object
Move between dimensions
texture, text
The bound book only one possible stage

[TOONLOOP]

68-69: Sphere explains to square

I: Space, my Lord, is height and breadth indefinitely prolonged.
Stranger: Exactly: you see you do not even know what Space is. You think it is of Two Dimensions only; but I have come to announce to you a Third – height, breadth, and length.
I: Your Lordship is pleased to be merry. We also speak of length and height, or breadth and thickness, thus denoting Two Dimensions by four names.
Stranger: But I mean not only three names, but Three Dimensions.
I: Would your Lordship indicate or explain to me in what direction is the Third Dimension, unknown to me?
Stranger: I came from it. It is up above and down below.]]></content:encoded>
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		<wp:post_id>6520</wp:post_id>
		<wp:post_date><![CDATA[2011-05-28 15:42:05]]></wp:post_date>
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		<title>Balsa pack</title>
		<link>http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/?p=6595</link>
		<pubDate>Mon, 30 Nov -0001 00:00:00 +0000</pubDate>
		<dc:creator><![CDATA[Stephanie]]></dc:creator>
		<guid isPermaLink="false">http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=6595</guid>
		<description></description>
		<content:encoded><![CDATA[A few days ago, we announced the <a href="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/news/balsa-context-the-sequel">revenge on ConTeXt</a> through the Balsamine theater. Here is our journey.

&nbsp;

Identity

sediments of the former identities

loop

Inkscape, LibreOffice

<a href="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/balsamine-logo.jpg"><img class="alignnone size-medium wp-image-6598" title="balsamine-logo" src="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/balsamine-logo-400x80.jpg" alt="" width="400" height="80" /></a>

<a href="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/P1030528-l.jpg"><img class="alignnone size-medium wp-image-6599" title="P1030528-l" src="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/P1030528-l-266x400.jpg" alt="" width="266" height="400" /></a>

Programme

LibreOffice, Pandoc, Context, Gantt-Tikz, pfg-tikz, Gimp, GraphViz

Many thanks to <a href="http://hellocatfood.com/">Antonio Roberts</a> and <a href="http://mathieu-g.be/">Mathieu Gabiot</a> for their graphviz contributions! Thanks to Cédric Gémy for his Gimp manual!

&nbsp;

"La pince de la Balsa" (the Balsa paperclip)

A <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cron">cron job</a> to fetch attachments sent by email to "la pince". <a href="http://balsamine.be">Those attachments start to invade the current website</a> during the summer, before the new website arrives.

&nbsp;]]></content:encoded>
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		<wp:post_date><![CDATA[2011-07-07 23:22:22]]></wp:post_date>
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		<title>Hey, is this Processing? Naw foo, it&#039;s PostScript!</title>
		<link>http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/?p=6619</link>
		<pubDate>Mon, 30 Nov -0001 00:00:00 +0000</pubDate>
		<dc:creator><![CDATA[Alexandre]]></dc:creator>
		<guid isPermaLink="false">http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=6619</guid>
		<description></description>
		<content:encoded><![CDATA[<h2 id="context">Context²</h2>
Recently, we have been introduced by our friend Seda to her colleagues at the department of crypto in KU Leuven to work on their visual identity. About 60 people work there, on topics ranging from low level mathematics to privacy in social networks. It was for us the perfect job to investigate the possibilities of thinking of visual identity as a programme as opposed to a more classical static approach.

There were only a few stipulations regarding the design, which came from an initial meeting some months ago. The most stern was: NO KEYS! That is, they did not want any cheap and inapplicable metaphors for computer security. So, no keys, no locks, and also no silly streams of 0s and 1s in glossy compsec green.
<h2 id="approaches">Approaches</h2>
So an email was sent out to the OSP troops: would anyone like to participate? In a rare change of form, STDIN (Steph and Alex) would not be working together. Who could handle working with Alex by himself? Only one person seemed brave enough ;)

(This concern was later erased by the introduction of STDIN's first, and greatest, intern, Eduard).

On a rainy Wednesday John arrived in Brussels to begin experimenting with Alex on possible approaches. Browsing through Google Image searches on cryptography for inspiration, we did not find any easy answers. Sure, <a href="http://www.google.com/search?q=crypto+wheel&amp;um=1&amp;ie=UTF-8&amp;tbm=isch&amp;source=og&amp;sa=N&amp;hl=en&amp;tab=wi&amp;biw=1252&amp;bih=520">crypto wheels</a> are not keys, but are they any less inappropriate and anachronistic?

It was then that two ideas came together. The first was: how do we even <em>create</em> a generative logo? What format could even support it?

The answer was PostScript. PostScript is a <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Turing_complete">Turing complete</a>, meaning that it is ready and able to program, well, <em>anything</em>. There are PostScript files which were programmed to crash your printer and spread like a virus. Support for PostScript through the Encapsulated PostScript (EPS) format is relatively widespread (even is Microsoft has chosen an inferior and annoying interpreter for their Office products). The prospect of creating a single graphics file which embedded its own generativity was too much to resist.

The second idea was related to somehow expressing crucial aspects of cryptography in a way that avoided all the old cliches. Perhaps inspired by our first experiment in "random" PostScript output, <code>randlines.eps</code>, Alex's mind grepped and returned (through the STDOUT of his STDIN) with a breakthrough: Moire patterns!

randlines.eps:

<code>%!PS-Adobe-3.0 EPSF-3.0
%%BoundingBox: 0 0 200 200
%%LanguageLevel: 2
/eps_state save def
/showpage { } def
/foo {
rand 200 mod rand 200 mod moveto
rand 200 mod rand 200 mod lineto
stroke
} def
realtime srand
100 { foo } repeat
showpage
eps_state restore</code>
<h2 id="moire-postscript-3-3-3">Moire + PostScript == &lt;3 &lt;3 &lt;3</h2>
And so began the experimentation. Early forays into the language proved invigorating. A programming language that is at once dynamic and interpreted (just like those fancy and once-derided "scripting" languages) <em>and</em> stack-based (like, um, <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Assembly_language">assembly</a>)??

Bring it on!

So while John worked at parsing and producing code in this historically alien hybrid, Alex and the new super-intern Edu began extensive visual testing in Inkscape. Though many have not yet been reinterpreted as PostScript code (because, and probably rightly so, Inkscape's Cairo-based PostScript export is concerned with exact representation and not cool, malleable loop based drawing), they continue to provide inspiration. One day soon we hope to be literate enough to reproduce them in PostScript code.

{an example jpg or more goes here}

Though extremely simple, the following image shows an initial excursion into logo generation. It features an embedded copy of <a href="http://www.google.com/webfonts/specimen/Lato">Lato Black</a> that was subsetted to include only the necessary letters ('c', 'o', 's', and 'i') and then converted to PostScript Type 42 to facilitate direct embedding in the EPS file.<sup><a id="fnref1" class="footnoteRef" href="#fn1">1</a></sup> The dots are generated through <code>for</code> loops and simple PostScript operators.
<p style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?attachment_id=6628" rel="attachment wp-att-6628"><img class="aligncenter size-full wp-image-6628" title="pattern_01" src="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/pattern_01.png" alt="" width="229" height="229" /></a><img class="aligncenter size-full wp-image-6630" title="pattern_03" src="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/pattern_03.png" alt="" width="244" height="245" /><a href="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?attachment_id=6629" rel="attachment wp-att-6629"><img class="aligncenter size-full wp-image-6629" title="pattern_02" src="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/pattern_02.png" alt="" width="240" height="241" /></a><img class="size-full wp-image-6631 aligncenter" title="pattern_04" src="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/pattern_04.png" alt="" width="225" height="225" /></p>
Generative logo/identity. Possibilities of postscript: a turing complete programming language. embeddable, self-contained.

moire effect and crypto relation between

tex, metafont and latin modern

letterhead, templates for presentations and bussiness card

including the files we have so far

proof of concept: randlines.
<h2 id="links">LINKS</h2>
<ul>
	<li><a href="http://whynotsmile.com/project/transitional.html">Why Not Smile - trippy Moire videos and (also interesting design)</a></li>
	<li><a href="http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wGjmwyoMirc">http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wGjmwyoMirc</a></li>
	<li>http://www.gametheory.ch/index.jsp?positionId=101450</li>
	<li>http://kai.jauslin.biz/personal/semantic-development/</li>
	<li>http://kai.jauslin.biz/other/visual-cryptography/</li>
	<li>http://www.munart.org/index.php?p5=1</li>
	<li>http://rijmenants.blogspot.com/2008/01/visual-cryptography.html</li>
</ul>
<div class="footnotes">

<hr />

<ol>
	<li id="fn1">This process will be outlined in a later post. <a class="footnoteBackLink" title="Jump back to footnote 1" href="#fnref1">↩</a></li>
</ol>
</div>]]></content:encoded>
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		<wp:post_id>6619</wp:post_id>
		<wp:post_date><![CDATA[2011-08-24 10:35:32]]></wp:post_date>
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		<title>The means of production</title>
		<link>http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/?p=7446</link>
		<pubDate>Mon, 30 Nov -0001 00:00:00 +0000</pubDate>
		<dc:creator><![CDATA[Eric]]></dc:creator>
		<guid isPermaLink="false">http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/?p=7446</guid>
		<description></description>
		<content:encoded><![CDATA[<p><em>A lecture by Gijs de Heij and Eric Schrijver from Open Source Publishing, presented October 27<sup>th</sup> 2014 at the KABK in The Hague during the Project Week ‘The Tribunal for Uncertain Objects’. The project week was structured around the research of Susan Schüpli. Other lectures that day were given by Jorinde Seijdel, Rosa Menkman and Jonas Staal.</em></p>

<p>We are Open Source Publishing, a caravan based in Brussels who only use Free and Open Source software to produce graphic design.</p>

<p>We started as an experiment enticed by the vibrant culture in the world of Free and Open Source software. We started to use this software as an alternative to the homogenous software landscape habitually used in graphic design.</p>

<p>Now we are not only using them but even producing them.</p>

<p>We prefer to call ourselves a kitchen.</p>

<a href="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/osp-cooking.jpeg"><img src="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/osp-cooking-400x267.jpeg" alt="OSP cooking" width="400" height="267" class="alignnone size-medium wp-image-7460" /></a>

<p>We do print parties in which we produce printed matter and we cook at the same time. A recipe can not be copyrighted—it can only be kept secret (like the recipe for Coca Cola) or shared (like your grand-fathers apple pie). Not only can we use some else’s recipe, we can also adapt it to our own version, that we in turn can pass on.</p>

<a href="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/osp-cooking-bw.jpg"><img src="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/osp-cooking-bw-400x267.jpg" alt="OSP cooking" width="400" height="267" class="alignnone size-medium wp-image-7459" /></a>

<p>We are in Brussels. We are 9—women and men from various backgrounds.</p>

<a href="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/txt-own-the-means-of-production.png"><img src="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/txt-own-the-means-of-production-400x300.png" alt="Own the means of production" width="400" height="300" class="alignnone size-medium wp-image-7478" style="border: 1px solid black;" /></a>

<p>Who owns the means of production? This is a central question in Marxist theory, and we don’t pretend to be Marxist theorists but still this question is very relevant to us.</p>

<p>All the technological means we normally use as graphic designers to create our work, our production, are produced and often patented by private companies. From the printing presses to the inks (Pantone colours—a standard owned by a private company!) and of course the computer software and hardware. </p>

<p>As a designer at the KABK, you are taught to be a conscious designer. You know that a designer is not just someone who can make pretty pictures to sell objects, but that design can tackle political questions. Or that you can do both at the same time, as Roosje &amp; Niels’ example of Toscani’s Benetton campaign illustrates.</p>

<p>So when we buy our computer and our computer software, we willingly give our money to these multi-billion dollar corporations. Why is that?</p>

<p>When you install mainstream software, like that made by Apple or Adobe, did you ever read one of these boxes where you click ‘I agree’? If you did you might have noticed that companies are very careful in their wording. They make it clear that you do not <em>own</em> the software, but rather, that <em>license</em> the software, which means that you buy the right to use the software in a certain way. The right to use the software is governed by a strict set of constraints. Among other constraints, these ‘End User License Agreements’ always forbid you to open up with the software, to tinker with the internals, to ‘reverse engineer’ it, to change it.</p>

<p>Adobe has traditionally been doing a good job at entertaining relations with educational institutions, offering them good deals on the software, making sure that new generations of designers depend on these tools. The software monoculture that has been created because of Adobe’s position as a monopolist is not a subject of discussion in design education.</p>

<p>So we have a situation where all designers across the world use the same tools made by the same small set of people, and they are not allowed to modify and change these tools as a traditional craftsman might have done.</p>

<p>We choose to use another type of tools: tools that are not privately owned but owned by the community. Free and Open Source Software is sometimes made by commercial companies, sometimes by amateurs, sometimes by professionals in their spare time, but in each case, those people who make the tools decide to license the software in such a way that it becomes part of the commons. These tools are ‘free’ in the sense of gratis, but more importantly we are allowed to open them up, access their source-code, we can <em>see</em> and <em>understand</em> how they work. What is maybe even more important: their license allows us to change the software, and <em>redistribute</em> the changed versions.</p>

<a href="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/slide-from-madrid-presentation-tool-universe.png"><img src="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/slide-from-madrid-presentation-tool-universe-400x300.png" alt="slide-from-madrid-presentation-tool-universe" width="400" height="300" class="alignnone size-medium wp-image-7470" /></a>

<p>We get by without Adobe and MacOS.</p>

<p>Here you see a part of our tool universe.</p>

<p>Now, many of these tools might be seen as counterparts to existing proprietary software: Linux is as an operating system, like OS X; Inkscape is a vector drawing program, like Adobe Illustrator; LibreOffice is an Office Suite, like Microsoft Office; Scribus is a desktop publishing program, like Adobe Indesign &amp; QuarkExpress; Fontforge is a font editor, like Fontlab and Gimp is a pixel-based image editor, like Adobe Photoshop.</p>

<p>The similarity between the Open Source tools and their more well known commercial counterparts varies. For instance, LibreOffice is a direct clone of Microsoft Office. In comparison, Inkscape feels quite different from Illustrator. Illustrator was built around the PostScript format, squarely based in print publishing, whereas Inkscape is built around the SVG format, which was conceived for the web and comes with its own approach to vector graphics.</p>

<p>We also use tools that have no real equivalent in the world of mainstream graphic design tools. Most of the time, these tools originate from worlds other than graphic design and therefore bring with them different approaches to visualisation.</p>

<p>Graphviz is a tool to produce network graphs developed by AT&amp;T (the telephone company). ConTeXt is a document formatting tool descended from Latex &amp; TeX—these are tools created  by scientists and still mainly used for scientific publications. Image-magick an image editor that works by sending it series of instructions through the command line.</p>

<a href="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/balsa_poster_11-12.jpg"><img src="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/balsa_poster_11-12-267x400.jpg" alt="balsa_poster_11-12" width="267" height="400" class="alignnone size-medium wp-image-7448" /></a>

<p>Here we see a poster, made with Inkscape, where the visual language is inspired by the kind of graphs that Graphviz generates. Parts of the poster were first generated with Graphviz.</p>

<a href="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/logo-balsa.jpg"><img src="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/logo-balsa-400x80.jpg" alt="logo-balsa" width="400" height="80" class="alignnone size-medium wp-image-7458" /></a>

<p>This is the logo of the Balsamine theatre, with the old logo decomposed and pasted into the b—
which is finally in all b’s in the font we created for the Balsamine. The font, by the way, was based on an existing Japanese open source font—the fact that the accented letter is of a different size than the non-accented letters is because it was intended for vertical display. These kind of artefacts that are the result of a different visual culture, we try to work with them, rather then brushing them away—in the same way that we do not mind to be influenced by the nature of the tools. If we use a tool, we let the tool inform us.</p>

<a href="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/screenshot-design-in-spreadsheet.png"><img src="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/screenshot-design-in-spreadsheet-400x215.png" alt="screenshot-design-in-spreadsheet" width="400" height="215" class="alignnone size-medium wp-image-7468" /></a>

<p>We made a Balsamine fanzine in LibreOffice Calc, which is like Microsoft Excel—
you can surely imagine it is slightly gruelling to do lay-out in a spreadsheet.</p>

<a href="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/balsa_website_13-14-screenshot.png"><img src="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/balsa_website_13-14-screenshot-400x218.png" alt="balsa_website_13-14-screenshot" width="400" height="218" class="alignnone size-medium wp-image-7453" /></a>

<p>This is the website of the Balsamine. On the web it is much more common to use open tools than it is in design for print: in this case, the underlying system is called PmWiki but other Open tools like Wordpress are really popular as well. They have thrived because of their open nature: because people are able to open these tools up and study the way they work, it becomes more easy to create add-ons, plugins and extensions. So such a tool can become the centre of its own little ecosystem.</p>

<p>So you see all tools bring a certain heritage, culture and ecosystem. For the 2014/2015 season of the Balsamine we wanted to align ourselves with the ecosystem of the web. Exactly because the internet is built on a ‘view-source’ logic, open standards like HTML, CSS and JavaScript.</p>

<p>So it brought us to this new challenge: let&#8217;s try HTML, as a tool for layout. Of course web designers use HTML for layout all the time. We wanted to take that tool and extend its reach, and design with it for print.</p>

<p>If you choose to work with HTML and CSS, it means a different model of layout than in most DTP software. You have a formatting model, called the ‘box model’, that is oriented towards reflowing. Another reason to work with HTML and CSS is the existing ecosystem. A tool like ConText is used by only a handful of users. Web design is booming. Even if designers using web technologies for print are a minority, these technologies themselves are in full development, and we can lift on some of the vitality of that ecosystem.</p>

<a href="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/slide-from-madrid-presentation-try-html.png"><img src="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/slide-from-madrid-presentation-try-html-400x300.png" alt="slide-from-madrid-presentation-try-html" width="400" height="300" class="alignnone size-medium wp-image-7471" /></a>

<a href="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/relearn_publication_12.png"><img src="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/relearn_publication_12-400x391.png" alt="relearn_publication_12" width="400" height="391" class="alignnone size-medium wp-image-7465" /></a>

<p>So we started to write the HTML and CSS together in Etherpad—
which is like the O.G. of collaborative text editors, and which is Open Source.</p>

<a href="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/balsa_programme_13-14-cover.png"><img src="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/balsa_programme_13-14-cover-400x344.png" alt="balsa_programme_13-14-cover" width="400" height="344" class="alignnone size-medium wp-image-7452" /></a>

<p>This is what it looks like.</p>

<a href="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/balsa_programme_13-14_spread.png"><img src="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/balsa_programme_13-14_spread-400x268.png" alt="balsa_programme_13-14_spread" width="400" height="268" class="alignnone size-medium wp-image-7451" /></a>

<a href="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/balsa_programme_13-14_spread_3.png"><img src="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/balsa_programme_13-14_spread_3-400x268.png" alt="balsa_programme_13-14_spread_3" width="400" height="268" class="alignnone size-medium wp-image-7450" /></a>

<a href="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/balsa_programme_13-14_spread_2.png"><img src="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/balsa_programme_13-14_spread_2-400x268.png" alt="balsa_programme_13-14_spread_2" width="400" height="268" class="alignnone size-medium wp-image-7449" /></a>

<p>We had to do quite some experimentation of course. We output the PDF simply with the browser: Ctrl+P.</p>

<a href="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/slide-from-madrid-presentation-html-challenges.png"><img src="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/slide-from-madrid-presentation-html-challenges-400x300.png" alt="slide-from-madrid-presentation-html-challenges" width="400" height="300" class="alignnone size-medium wp-image-7469" /></a>

<p>CSS already offers quite some features for print. Unfortunately, some of these features are described in the CSS standard, but not yet implemented by web browsers. So whereas methods exist to specify crop marks and page numbers, they do not work yet. So for these features we had to find work-arounds. Also the browser generates PDFs in RGB. This is a problem in print, where either CMYK or spot colours are used. What we did, finally, is to make two pdfs, for two spot colours.</p>

<a href="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/ethertoff-write-read-print.gif"><img src="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/ethertoff-write-read-print.gif" alt="ethertoff-write-read-print" width="400" height="329" class="alignnone size-medium wp-image-7455" /></a>

<p>When we organised the Relearn Summer School (more on that later), we wanted to create a tool where the participants could create a report in real-time. Again we used the Etherpad, and hooked it up to create a wiki-like tool called Ethertoff. Participants take notes on the etherpad, these notes are displayed on a webpage, and the participants can also edit the stylesheet that determines the layout of the webpage. So writing notes and doing design can happen at the same time. All these webpages then, are printed by the browser and collated together to form a PDF for a print publication.</p>

<a href="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/relearn_publication_11.png"><img src="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/relearn_publication_11-400x283.png" alt="relearn_publication_11" width="400" height="283" class="alignnone size-medium wp-image-7464" /></a>

<p>Here we see a spread from the book—What is funny that the challenge here wasn’t as much on a technological level, but on the level of the organisation of the process. The creation of a book is often sequentially ordered: the text is written, the text is edited, the lay-out is created, the proofs are checked, the designer finishes the lay-out before it goes to the printer. In this case, everything: writing, editing and designing—happened all the time. We could also print at any time.</p>

<p>So how to manage this process? That becomes the challenge.</p>

<a href="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/relearn_publication_04.png"><img src="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/relearn_publication_04-400x314.png" alt="relearn_publication_04" width="400" height="314" class="alignnone size-medium wp-image-7463" /></a>

<p>Here you see a detail where we see the different people who participated in writing this text.</p>

<a href="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/txt-who-owns-culture.png"><img src="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/txt-who-owns-culture-400x300.png" alt="Who owns culture?" width="400" height="300" class="alignnone size-medium wp-image-7481" style="border: 1px solid black;" /></a>

<p>A designer does not just work with technological tools: the main material is the visual culture a designer continuously appropriates and re-uses and invents upon.</p>

<p>A culture, as such, is by its very definition communally owned, but the artefacts that make up culture are private property. Copyright is a right, it is accorded by default, no need to claim it. You just have to make a ‘creative act’, and the product of your creative act is protected by copyright until 70 years after your death, automatically. It is only after that period, that the work is considered to become again a part of the commons: the public domain, free for everyone to use.</p>

<a href="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/SANS_GUILT.png"><img src="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/SANS_GUILT-291x400.png" alt="SANS_GUILT" width="291" height="400" class="alignnone size-medium wp-image-7467" /></a>

<p>At the 71<sup>st</sup> anniversary of the death of Eric Gill, OSP released three typefaces, all versions of his famous Gill Sans.</p>

<p>One is based on drawings of Gill—juridically, that is fine. Another on one is based on scans of lead. The last one is based on the digital Monotype version that everyone with a Mac can find on their computer.</p>

<p>Typefaces have traditionally been hard to protect under copyright, especially in American courts, because American judges figured that making a typeface is not a ‘creative act’. So typeface companies found a way around this: the form of the typeface might be hard to copyright, the code, the coordinates that makes up the digital typeface is copyrightable: it is considered a writing.</p>

<p>So what we did, is that we converted the font into bitmap, so that the coordinates information of the curves would get lost. Then we traced the outlines, so we would get another representation of (more or less) the same curves.</p>

<p>We wrote a letter to Monotype, explaining what we’ve done—their lawyer wrote us back, asking for our address and we never heard from them since.</p>

<a href="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/txt-generous-sharing.png"><img src="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/txt-generous-sharing-400x300.png" alt="Generous sharing" width="400" height="300" class="alignnone size-medium wp-image-7476" style="border: 1px solid black;" /></a>

<p>We are Open Source Publishing so obviously we use Open Source software, but we also try to open up our own production. For us it is important to share generously, even if it not always easy to do so. How can we actually invite others to use the designs and tools we have created? How do we communicate our process?</p>

<p>Software comes with a manual to explain how it works. But in fact there is also a manual within the code, describing how it is structured and how it works. When you have access to the source code, as you do with Free and Open Source software, you can read all the ‘comments’: lines of code that are not meant for the machine to execute but for humans to read. And the files produced by your software, you can open them up as well.</p>

<a href="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/txt-welcoming-formats.png"><img src="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/txt-welcoming-formats-400x300.png" alt="Welcoming data formats" width="400" height="300" class="alignnone size-medium wp-image-7480" style="border: 1px solid black;" /></a>

<a href="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/edit_glif.png"><img src="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/edit_glif-400x225.png" alt="edit_glif" width="400" height="225" class="alignnone size-medium wp-image-7454" /></a>

<p>We prefer to use text-based data-formats. Normally data might be stored in arbitrary binary encodings that fit great in the binary way of thinking of a computer but are illegible to humans. In text-based formats your image, your glyph remains text so you can see and understand what is stored in the file. On the image you see a letter drawn, and its corresponding text in a UFO font. UFO is an open, text-based format developed by your teachers Erik van Blokland and Just van Rossum. Together with Tal Leming. This UFO font, you can start to modify it through a text-editor. Who needs design software?</p>

<p>Of course every format brings its own vocabulary; but as it remains text you can more easily study the data and its structures. It also allows for a more durable storage of your data. Rosa Menkman noticed this how a file of a three year old version of Pages might not work anymore. With a text-based formats, you would be able to open it up yourself.</p>

<p>Open Source is not subject to the same logic of programmed obsolescence as commercial software. Rosa also mentioned what a wonderful piece of software Quicktime Pro is. We agree. But it doesn’t run anymore on today’s computers, because the company that owns the program has another program that fills Quicktime’s niche (Quicktime X). So they have no commercial interest in keeping it alive. Just like the vector drawing software Freehand was killed off by Adobe once it acquired Macromedia—because it was competition to Adobe’s Illustrator product. You can run Freehand on your old Macintosh, but there is no version that works on current computers. Were it to be Open Source, the community could have adapted it to work on current computers.</p>

<p>There are certain Open Source softwares that date back to the 1970ies that are still in use on computers today.</p>

<a href="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/osp-website-portrait.png"><img src="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/osp-website-portrait-238x400.png" alt="osp-website-portrait" width="238" height="400" class="alignnone size-medium wp-image-7462" /></a>

<p>To collaborate we use a tool called Git. Git is a software running on a server making sure every contributor to a project has the same version of  a file. It also keeps track of the history of a file and this whole history is also present within every local copy. Every contributor owns a full copy of a project’s history.</p>

<p>Visual Culture is an interface into this archive. It allows anyone to explore our projects and their files, we imagine Visual Culture as a tool that would allow for a more rich collaboration between designers. Especially for shared graphical objects like typefaces we imagine am opportunity for a more shared, distributed form of production.</p>

<a href="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/relearn.png"><img src="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/relearn-400x300.png" alt="Relearn" width="400" height="300" class="alignnone size-medium wp-image-7466" style="border: 1px solid black;" /></a>

<p>Relearn is a summer-school we’ve organised in the past two years. As a lot of OSP members are also teachers they try to spread the open-source culture also in traditional art academies. This doesn’t always work out as we’d like, because a school structure comes with so many roles and hierarchies already established. That is why we started our own initiative. Almost everybody who participated in Relearn was either a student or a teacher in their daily live, but here we come together as a group of people coming together who want to learn. And we find out the best way to learn.</p>

<p>The Free and Open Source software development is inspiring when it comes to education. Firstly, the exchange of knowledge happens mostly outside of traditional educational institutions and art institutions. There is an awful lot of self-organising involved. Secondly, the participants display a surprising agility in moving between roles. A mentor on one project can be an apprentice on another project.</p>

<p>For the organisation of Relearn we tried to keep the agility in mind. The event is organised in week long workshops, a.k.a. tracks each coming with their own themes and questions. These tracks are prepared by &#8216;consciences&#8217; who set the frame and keep the exchange of knowledge flowing. Participants are also encouraged to jump track during the week.</p>

<p>In closing, we would like to come back to Jonas Staal’s lecture. He raised the question if we should be content with the role of the artist as the one who holds mirrors and raises questions. In Jonas’ view, artists can take an active role in facilitating social change.</p>

<p>In our case we don’t see ourselves as (just) questioning the culture of Free and Open Source—we are actually participants. Because we have an a-typical profile for typical Open Source developers, we do get confronted with real problems in this subculture: sexism and scientism, among other things. And we like to think, that in our way, we contribute to re-thinking this subculture. But we do not do so as questioning outsiders anymore—we have just as well become a part of this culture.</p>

<p>It is the question what happens when you get interested in a subculture you initially are not part of. Today’s artists and designers often position themselves as amateur-anthropologists. Fandom, religion, activism, all are alluring because their practitioners have a sense of conviction and purpose artists can no longer easily claim for themselves. So the artist comes into the community, makes work about it, maybe even collaborates with community members. Yet the artist’s reflex might be to keep a safe distance. To keep the position of the outsider. And then report back from the comfort of the gallery.</p>

<p>In Graham Greene’s ‘the Quiet American’, the protagonist, a journalist, tries to keep his distance from the political turmoil around him in Indochine. Yet he finds out he is in over his head already, a participant whether he wants it or not. ‘Sooner or later’, the local resistance leader tells him, ‘one has to take sides’. </p>]]></content:encoded>
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		<wp:post_date><![CDATA[2015-10-22 15:06:58]]></wp:post_date>
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		<category domain="author" nicename="eric"><![CDATA[Eric]]></category>
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		<title>Inkscape Poster</title>
		<link>http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/works/inkscape-poster</link>
		<pubDate>Wed, 22 Feb 2006 22:41:42 +0000</pubDate>
		<dc:creator><![CDATA[Harrisson]]></dc:creator>
		<guid isPermaLink="false">http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=34</guid>
		<description></description>
		<content:encoded><![CDATA[<a href="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/poster_stein.jpg"><img title="stein poster" src="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/_poster_stein.jpg" alt="stein poster" width="176" height="250" /></a>

<em>Poster done with Inkscape, the context is the visit of Bob Stein at the Jan Van Eyck Academie</em>

Thursday 23 February, 15:00
The Jan Van Eyck Academie
kindly invites you to:
<strong>The Tomorrow Book</strong>
Robert Stein presentation]]></content:encoded>
		<excerpt:encoded><![CDATA[]]></excerpt:encoded>
		<wp:post_id>34</wp:post_id>
		<wp:post_date><![CDATA[2006-02-22 23:41:42]]></wp:post_date>
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			<wp:comment_id>47872</wp:comment_id>
			<wp:comment_author><![CDATA[Tessie]]></wp:comment_author>
			<wp:comment_author_email><![CDATA[sowm7544@gmail.com]]></wp:comment_author_email>
			<wp:comment_author_url>http://www.yahoo.com/</wp:comment_author_url>
			<wp:comment_author_IP><![CDATA[68.68.20.186]]></wp:comment_author_IP>
			<wp:comment_date><![CDATA[2011-04-24 01:55:17]]></wp:comment_date>
			<wp:comment_date_gmt><![CDATA[2011-04-23 23:55:17]]></wp:comment_date_gmt>
			<wp:comment_content><![CDATA[I'm impressed! You've managed the almost impsosblie.]]></wp:comment_content>
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		<title>Broodthaers font</title>
		<link>http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/downloads/broodthaers-font</link>
		<pubDate>Mon, 27 Feb 2006 13:52:01 +0000</pubDate>
		<dc:creator><![CDATA[Harrisson]]></dc:creator>
		<guid isPermaLink="false">http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=44</guid>
		<description></description>
		<content:encoded><![CDATA[Open Source Font in True Type format.
Broodthaers font will appear as <em>Mallarme</em> in the font list.

<img src="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/2006/02/broodthaers_mallarme.png" alt="broodthaers" />

<a href="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/mallarme.ttf">Download here</a>]]></content:encoded>
		<excerpt:encoded><![CDATA[]]></excerpt:encoded>
		<wp:post_id>44</wp:post_id>
		<wp:post_date><![CDATA[2006-02-27 14:52:01]]></wp:post_date>
		<wp:post_date_gmt><![CDATA[2006-02-27 13:52:01]]></wp:post_date_gmt>
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		<wp:post_name><![CDATA[broodthaers-font]]></wp:post_name>
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		<wp:comment>
			<wp:comment_id>45876</wp:comment_id>
			<wp:comment_author><![CDATA[Mariano]]></wp:comment_author>
			<wp:comment_author_email><![CDATA[maliarome776@gmail.com]]></wp:comment_author_email>
			<wp:comment_author_url></wp:comment_author_url>
			<wp:comment_author_IP><![CDATA[190.49.190.79]]></wp:comment_author_IP>
			<wp:comment_date><![CDATA[2010-09-04 15:08:58]]></wp:comment_date>
			<wp:comment_date_gmt><![CDATA[2010-09-04 13:08:58]]></wp:comment_date_gmt>
			<wp:comment_content><![CDATA[Great, thanks!]]></wp:comment_content>
			<wp:comment_approved><![CDATA[1]]></wp:comment_approved>
			<wp:comment_type><![CDATA[]]></wp:comment_type>
			<wp:comment_parent>0</wp:comment_parent>
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	<item>
		<title>Linux Libertine font project</title>
		<link>http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/typo/linux-libertine-font-project</link>
		<pubDate>Mon, 27 Feb 2006 17:21:49 +0000</pubDate>
		<dc:creator><![CDATA[Harrisson]]></dc:creator>
		<guid isPermaLink="false">http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=46</guid>
		<description></description>
		<content:encoded><![CDATA[<img title="libertine pic" src="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/libertine.png" alt="libertine pic" width="346" height="47" />

The Libertine family font contains around 1500 "western" caracters among which cyrillic, greek, turkish and so on. The font looks classical, between Baskerville and Caslon style. The general impression is a contemporary looking 19th century font. Hints are good looking above 8 points, and is comfortable on screen. Good typography seems to be possible using it.

<em>Letters and fonts are two things in one: On the one hand they are basic elements of communication and fundaments of our culture, on the other hand they are cultural goods and artcraft.
You are able to see just the first aspect, but when it comes to software you'll see those copyrights and patents even on the most elementary fonts. We want to give you an alternative: This is why we founded The Libertine Open Fonts Project.</em>

<a title="libertine font" href="http://linuxlibertine.sourceforge.net/" target="_blank">http://linuxlibertine.sourceforge.net/</a>]]></content:encoded>
		<excerpt:encoded><![CDATA[]]></excerpt:encoded>
		<wp:post_id>46</wp:post_id>
		<wp:post_date><![CDATA[2006-02-27 18:21:49]]></wp:post_date>
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		<category domain="author" nicename="harrisson"><![CDATA[Harrisson]]></category>
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			<wp:meta_value><![CDATA[a:2:{s:4:"time";i:1223516412;s:13:"related_posts";s:1258:"<ul class="related_post"><li><a href="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=910" title="Interview avec Denis">Interview avec Denis</a></li><li><a href="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=617" title="NotCourier-sans nouvelle is arrived">NotCourier-sans nouvelle is arrived</a></li><li><a href="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=557" title="Free Poster!">Free Poster!</a></li><li><a href="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=560" title="An update on the status of Utopia">An update on the status of Utopia</a></li><li><a href="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=504" title="The status of Utopia">The status of Utopia</a></li><li><a href="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=496" title="Mathematics, fonts, free and money">Mathematics, fonts, free and money</a></li><li><a href="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=477" title="Typeface in the making: W Drogę">Typeface in the making: W Drogę</a></li><li><a href="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=471" title="NotCourier-sans">NotCourier-sans</a></li><li><a href="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=466" title="Road to South-Wrocław">Road to South-Wrocław</a></li><li><a href="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=434" title="Pavillion du Bonheur Provisoire">Pavillion du Bonheur Provisoire</a></li></ul>";}]]></wp:meta_value>
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	<item>
		<title>Community marketing?</title>
		<link>http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/news/community-marketing</link>
		<pubDate>Mon, 27 Feb 2006 17:17:57 +0000</pubDate>
		<dc:creator><![CDATA[Femke]]></dc:creator>
		<guid isPermaLink="false">http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=48</guid>
		<description></description>
		<content:encoded><![CDATA[On <a href="http://www.spreadfirefox.com/">http://www.spreadfirefox.com/</a> Firefox "Calls All Firefox Fans" to work on posters, leaflets, e-cards, websites and videoclips in an attempt  take more market share away from Internet Explorer. One of their most popular campaigns I've posted here, because it replicates <em>so</em> many cliches about women and computers, that it makes me seriously doubt this "community" approach:

<a href="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/femfox.jpg"><img src="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/_femfox.jpg" width="187" height="250" alt="Femfox" title="Femfox"  /></a>
<a href="http://www.femfox.com">http://www.femfox.com</a>

<!--more-->
On fora and blogs I find numerous people discussing whether this is the right campaign for Firefox (at least only partially busy asking if targeting men more than women is actually helpful, and whether it's possibly "pornographic" character would harm the American "market"). 

Funny alternatives to headless women in lace start to circulated too:

<a href="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/firemale.png"><img src="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/_firemale.png" alt="firemalefox" /></a>
<em>[Firefox blocks unwanted pop-ups]</em>

But still...  do-it-ourselve publicity using conventional marketing strategies as the model and measure of success? Why is it so hard, after you have reinvented the software, to reinvent software marketing too?]]></content:encoded>
		<excerpt:encoded><![CDATA[]]></excerpt:encoded>
		<wp:post_id>48</wp:post_id>
		<wp:post_date><![CDATA[2006-02-27 18:17:57]]></wp:post_date>
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		<title>Alpha font</title>
		<link>http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/typo/alpha-font</link>
		<pubDate>Mon, 27 Feb 2006 17:42:47 +0000</pubDate>
		<dc:creator><![CDATA[Harrisson]]></dc:creator>
		<guid isPermaLink="false">http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=51</guid>
		<description></description>
		<content:encoded><![CDATA[<img id="image62" src="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/2006/03/alphabetum.png" alt="alphabetum.png" height="411" width="541" />

Most amazing font so far, the Alphabetum font, for ancient languages. It is now possible to compose text with languages that disappeared 5000 years ago. I have to say all my respect for such a nice and usefull work! Thanks from university researchers that had to redraw all archeologic inscriptions found on sites. Now those texts can circulates.

<em>        Juan-José Marcos'         <a href="http://guindo.cnice.mecd.es/%7Ejmag0042/alphaeng.html">         Alphabetum font        </a>         is a large Unicode font covering more than 4000 characters in the most        recent version. Although the full font is not free, costing €15 for individual registration,        a demo version of the font lacking about 500 glyphs present in        the full font can be downloaded for free.  Coverage is provided for classic and medieval Latin, ancient Greek,         Old Italic-Etruscan, Oscan, Umbrian, Faliscan, Messapic, Picene-Gothic, Iberian,         Celtiberian, old and middle English, Hebrew, Sanskrit, Runic, Ogham,  Ugaritic,          Old Persian cuneiform, Phoenician, Linear B, Cypriot, Aegean numbers, old and        medieval Nordic.</em>

<a target="_blank" title="link to alpha font" href="http://guindo.cnice.mecd.es/~jmag0042/alphaeng.html">http://guindo.cnice.mecd.es/~jmag0042/alphaeng.html</a>]]></content:encoded>
		<excerpt:encoded><![CDATA[]]></excerpt:encoded>
		<wp:post_id>51</wp:post_id>
		<wp:post_date><![CDATA[2006-02-27 18:42:47]]></wp:post_date>
		<wp:post_date_gmt><![CDATA[2006-02-27 17:42:47]]></wp:post_date_gmt>
		<wp:comment_status><![CDATA[closed]]></wp:comment_status>
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		<wp:post_name><![CDATA[alpha-font]]></wp:post_name>
		<wp:status><![CDATA[publish]]></wp:status>
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		<category domain="author" nicename="harrisson"><![CDATA[Harrisson]]></category>
		<category domain="post_tag" nicename="libre-fonts"><![CDATA[Libre Fonts]]></category>
		<category domain="category" nicename="typo"><![CDATA[Type]]></category>
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		<wp:comment>
			<wp:comment_id>2</wp:comment_id>
			<wp:comment_author><![CDATA[Femke]]></wp:comment_author>
			<wp:comment_author_email><![CDATA[snelting@geuzen.org]]></wp:comment_author_email>
			<wp:comment_author_url>http://www.geuzen.org</wp:comment_author_url>
			<wp:comment_author_IP><![CDATA[87.64.27.102]]></wp:comment_author_IP>
			<wp:comment_date><![CDATA[2006-02-27 19:06:17]]></wp:comment_date>
			<wp:comment_date_gmt><![CDATA[2006-02-27 18:06:17]]></wp:comment_date_gmt>
			<wp:comment_content><![CDATA[Not only cross language borders (like Gentium), but travel in time as well!

Could you include a link to the license on Alphabetum? On Marcos' website I cannot find a mention that the sources are open and/or whether you could re-distribute this font.

Thanks!]]></wp:comment_content>
			<wp:comment_approved><![CDATA[1]]></wp:comment_approved>
			<wp:comment_type><![CDATA[]]></wp:comment_type>
			<wp:comment_parent>0</wp:comment_parent>
			<wp:comment_user_id>2</wp:comment_user_id>
		</wp:comment>
	</item>
	<item>
		<title>The Open Font License</title>
		<link>http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/typo/the-open-font-license</link>
		<pubDate>Mon, 27 Feb 2006 20:34:34 +0000</pubDate>
		<dc:creator><![CDATA[Femke]]></dc:creator>
		<guid isPermaLink="false">http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=53</guid>
		<description></description>
		<content:encoded><![CDATA[[check <a href="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=54">The politics of typography</a> before applying SIL-OFL]

<img src="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/OFL_logo_rect_color.png" width="88" height="31" alt="" title="" />
The SIL-OFL is a free license specifically developed for (multi-lingual) fonts. These are the four freedoms guaranteed through the Open Font License (similar to other Free licenses):
<em>* <strong>Use</strong>: the freedom to use font software for any purpose. (freedom 0)
* <strong>Study and adaptation</strong>: the freedom to study how font software works, and adapt it to your needs (freedom 1). Access and rights to the source code is a precondition for this.
* <strong>Redistribution</strong>: the freedom to redistribute copies of the font software so you can help your neighbor (freedom 2).
* <strong>Improvement and redistribution of modifications</strong>: the freedom to improve the font software and release your improvements (freedom 3), so that the community benefits. Access and rights to the source code is a precondition for this.</em>
Applying an Open License to your font is made easy with the Open Font License. See this <a href="http://scripts.sil.org/cms/scripts/page.php?site_id=nrsi&item_id=OFL-FAQ_web">FAQ</a> to find out how it works.]]></content:encoded>
		<excerpt:encoded><![CDATA[]]></excerpt:encoded>
		<wp:post_id>53</wp:post_id>
		<wp:post_date><![CDATA[2006-02-27 21:34:34]]></wp:post_date>
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		<wp:post_name><![CDATA[the-open-font-license]]></wp:post_name>
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			<wp:comment_id>3</wp:comment_id>
			<wp:comment_author><![CDATA[Femke]]></wp:comment_author>
			<wp:comment_author_email><![CDATA[snelting@geuzen.org]]></wp:comment_author_email>
			<wp:comment_author_url>http://www.geuzen.org</wp:comment_author_url>
			<wp:comment_author_IP><![CDATA[87.64.5.178]]></wp:comment_author_IP>
			<wp:comment_date><![CDATA[2006-03-01 16:42:07]]></wp:comment_date>
			<wp:comment_date_gmt><![CDATA[2006-03-01 15:42:07]]></wp:comment_date_gmt>
			<wp:comment_content><![CDATA[Note to self:  there is no mention of what the acronym SIL actually means on http://www.sil.org (the organisation developing the OFL), and we were surprised to find that it means Summer Institute of Linguistics and is actually a Christian organisation promoting bible translations because "no language is insignificant". Wikipedias article on SIL is considered to be "not neutral" but find some more juicy details there.]]></wp:comment_content>
			<wp:comment_approved><![CDATA[1]]></wp:comment_approved>
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			<wp:comment_user_id>2</wp:comment_user_id>
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		<wp:comment>
			<wp:comment_id>9</wp:comment_id>
			<wp:comment_author><![CDATA[Andrew Charles]]></wp:comment_author>
			<wp:comment_author_email><![CDATA[thegriffon@myrealbox.com]]></wp:comment_author_email>
			<wp:comment_author_url></wp:comment_author_url>
			<wp:comment_author_IP><![CDATA[220.101.98.20]]></wp:comment_author_IP>
			<wp:comment_date><![CDATA[2006-04-20 09:09:16]]></wp:comment_date>
			<wp:comment_date_gmt><![CDATA[2006-04-20 08:09:16]]></wp:comment_date_gmt>
			<wp:comment_content><![CDATA[The Atlantic Monthly ran an article on SIL some years ago. SIL is a missionary organisation focusing on providing bible translations in the world's least used languages (as Femke quotes "no language is insignificant"). AM reported that SIL is widely respected by linguists for the quality of their work and for documenting and preserving many endangered languages, but hated by anthropologists for their role in destroying other aspects of indigenous culture (particularly religion). SIL takes linguistics seriously, contributing greatly to linguistic scholarship and developing software for the documentation and translation of languages. Font development has been a natural out-growth of this work, as has co-operation with UNESCO's Initiative B@bel in the development of multi-lingual software.]]></wp:comment_content>
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	</item>
	<item>
		<title>The politics of typography</title>
		<link>http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/typo/the-politics-of-typography</link>
		<pubDate>Wed, 01 Mar 2006 18:56:00 +0000</pubDate>
		<dc:creator><![CDATA[Femke]]></dc:creator>
		<guid isPermaLink="false">http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=54</guid>
		<description></description>
		<content:encoded><![CDATA[The open source font <strong>Gentium</strong> and <strong>The SIL Open Font License</strong> are both developed and distributed by <a href="http://www.sil.org">S.I.L.</a>, also known as The Summer Institute for Linguistics, apparently a subsidiary of the <a href="http://www.wicliffe.org">Wicliffe Bible Translators</a>. S.I.L. has developed large-scale ethno-linguistic research projects such as <a href="http://www.ethnologue.org">http://www.ethnologue.org</a>, an attempt to map all indigenous languages of the world. The S.I.L. site does not give much information about the protestant character of it's mission, so we had to look for it somewhere else. Marcio Ferreira da Silva (Universidade de Sao Paulo) about the activities of S.I.L. in Brazil:
<blockquote>"S.I.L.'s objectives are no different from those of any other traditional mission: the conversion of the indians and the saving of their souls. Their methods, however, are in some ways peculiar, incorporating a bilingual educational model which is an integral part of their evangelical strategy."</blockquote>
<!--more-->


<blockquote>

"The judicial and administrative references from the beginning of the seventies should therefore be interpreted as the coming together of the religiously dogmatic educational model idealized by S.I.L. and the indigenous framework put forward by the military regime. In the Indian Statute - a law passed in 1973 -, for example, there is explicit reference to teaching reading and writing "in the language of the group to which they belong", but nothing regarding the of official recognition of these languages as means of communication with these ethnically different minorities (...) Overall, the teaching of communication skills in native language, included in law in the seventies, is born of a purely instrumental missionary practice."</blockquote>
<a href="http://www.clas.berkeley.edu:7001/Events/fall1999/10-28-99-ferreiradasilva/">http://www.clas.berkeley.edu:7001/Events/fall1999/10-28-99-ferreiradasilva/</a>]]></content:encoded>
		<excerpt:encoded><![CDATA[]]></excerpt:encoded>
		<wp:post_id>54</wp:post_id>
		<wp:post_date><![CDATA[2006-03-01 19:56:00]]></wp:post_date>
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		<wp:post_name><![CDATA[the-politics-of-typography]]></wp:post_name>
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	<item>
		<title>Fonts for human beings</title>
		<link>http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/news/fonts-for-human-beings</link>
		<pubDate>Wed, 01 Mar 2006 20:34:11 +0000</pubDate>
		<dc:creator><![CDATA[nicolas]]></dc:creator>
		<guid isPermaLink="false">http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=55</guid>
		<description></description>
		<content:encoded><![CDATA[<img src="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/2006/03/ubuntu-font.png" alt="Ubuntu-title" />

The "user-friendly" distribution Ubuntu is distributing its font under the LGPL. I have not heard the same from other distributions. It seems that Redhat or Novell do not want to share their corporate identity with the rest of us. Ubuntu's founder Mark Shuttleworth, who sold his company Thawte(a company that issues security certificates) to become the first African citizen in space, supports free software. He understands the free in <em>free software</em> as in <em>freedom</em> but also as in <em>free beer</em> since the distribution is supposed to be always <em>free of charge</em>.
<blockquote>The team behind Ubuntu makes the following public commitment to its users:

*Ubuntu will always be free of charge, and there is no extra fee for the "enterprise edition", we make our very best work available to everyone on the same Free terms.
*Ubuntu comes with full commercial support from hundreds of companies around the world. Ubuntu is released regularly and predictably; a new release is made every six months. Each release is supported with free security updates and fixes for at least 18 months.
*Ubuntu will include the very best in translations and accessibility infrastructure that the Free Software community has to offer, to make Ubuntu usable by as many people as possible. We collaborate as widely as possible on bug fixing and code sharing.
*Ubuntu is entirely committed to the principles of free software development; we encourage people to use free and open source software, improve it and pass it on.</blockquote>
Although the <a href="http://www.ubuntu.com/include/circle-510.png">community marketing</a> of Ubuntu is sometimes getting on my nerves, a panorama of the tools for open publishing would be incomplete without <a href="http://debuntu.free.fr/share/ubuntu-title.ttf">Ubuntu-title.ttf</a>.]]></content:encoded>
		<excerpt:encoded><![CDATA[]]></excerpt:encoded>
		<wp:post_id>55</wp:post_id>
		<wp:post_date><![CDATA[2006-03-01 21:34:11]]></wp:post_date>
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			<wp:meta_value><![CDATA[7783]]></wp:meta_value>
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		<wp:comment>
			<wp:comment_id>43540</wp:comment_id>
			<wp:comment_author><![CDATA[nitrofurano]]></wp:comment_author>
			<wp:comment_author_email><![CDATA[nitrofurano@gmail.com]]></wp:comment_author_email>
			<wp:comment_author_url>http://nitrofurano.linuxkafe.com</wp:comment_author_url>
			<wp:comment_author_IP><![CDATA[87.196.95.14]]></wp:comment_author_IP>
			<wp:comment_date><![CDATA[2008-09-26 11:13:19]]></wp:comment_date>
			<wp:comment_date_gmt><![CDATA[2008-09-26 10:13:19]]></wp:comment_date_gmt>
			<wp:comment_content><![CDATA[more about ubuntu-title typeface:
http://www.ubuntu-art.org/content/show.php/UbuntuTitle+-+more+weights?content=84788]]></wp:comment_content>
			<wp:comment_approved><![CDATA[1]]></wp:comment_approved>
			<wp:comment_type><![CDATA[]]></wp:comment_type>
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	<item>
		<title>A double spread in scribus</title>
		<link>http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/tools/a-double-spread-in-scribus</link>
		<pubDate>Sat, 04 Mar 2006 16:08:57 +0000</pubDate>
		<dc:creator><![CDATA[Harrisson]]></dc:creator>
		<guid isPermaLink="false">http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=63</guid>
		<description></description>
		<content:encoded><![CDATA[<img src="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/babelbooksm.png" alt="" />

Thanks to Philip May and Perl5 software that generated text, it was possible to realise a double spread of a "Babels book". Text is composed of the combinatory of the 26 letters of the alphabet, dot, comma and space, as described in <em>Library of Babel</em>, in <em>Fictions</em> Borges book. Those books are 410 page, 40 lines per page and 80 character per line. Capitals were added in the script. Those 2 pages were then set with Scribus.
<!--more-->
<a href="http://www.constant.irisnet.be/~constant/tbook/wp-content/babel_bookok.pdf">See the pdf</a>

Obviously, scribus needs a strong amelioration of its ergonomy. It took something like 3 hours to compose those 2 pages.
Here is a  Scribus Bug Report, encounted during the exercice:
<ul> -	No constrain line drawing (like with shift on other softs).
-	No constrain movement when moving blocs.
-	Leading not available in text box.
-	Bloc always move a bit when selected.
-	No hand to navigate in the document.
-	in the Format size selection, custom format should appear first instead of last.
-	Selection above/under object too complicated.
-	annoying system of magnifying
-	No indicator "+" / "-" when magnifying.
-	When magnifying, view is always set in the upper left corner of the document.
-	In Text bloc
-	Impossibility to jump from one letter to another in the text box with arrows keys.
-	No undo command</ul>
among other...

But the pdf generator seems to work ok so far, it was very easy to export.]]></content:encoded>
		<excerpt:encoded><![CDATA[]]></excerpt:encoded>
		<wp:post_id>63</wp:post_id>
		<wp:post_date><![CDATA[2006-03-04 17:08:57]]></wp:post_date>
		<wp:post_date_gmt><![CDATA[2006-03-04 16:08:57]]></wp:post_date_gmt>
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		<wp:post_name><![CDATA[a-double-spread-in-scribus]]></wp:post_name>
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	<item>
		<title>Don&#039;t keep it to yourself!</title>
		<link>http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/tools/dont-keep-it-to-yourself</link>
		<pubDate>Wed, 15 Mar 2006 21:53:17 +0000</pubDate>
		<dc:creator><![CDATA[Femke]]></dc:creator>
		<guid isPermaLink="false">http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=65</guid>
		<description></description>
		<content:encoded><![CDATA[<img src="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/2pixelpunch.png" alt="" />

<a href="http://www.orgdot.com/aliasfonts/">http://www.orgdot.com/aliasfonts/</a>
(c) 2001 http://www.orgdot.com: you can copy, use, modify and distribute this code and/or artwork for educational, commercial or recreational use.<!--more-->
All we ask is that you include this copyright notice in the material you distribute. for compiled code, you will need to make accessible this copyright notice somewhere in the distribution, and/or via a link on the web. there are several reasons for this caveat - the most important being that open source is based on one main principle: what you find and use, others should also have access to. don't keep it to yourself!

this software is provided by the author and contributors "as is" and any express or implied warranties, including, but not limited to, the implied warranties of merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose are disclaimed. in no event shall the author or contributors be liable for any direct, indirect, incidental, special, exemplary, or consequential damages (including, but not limited to, procurement of substitute goods or services; loss of use, data, or profits; or business interruption) however caused and on any theory of liability, whether in contract, strict liability, or tort (including negligence or otherwise) arising in any way out of the use of this software, even if advised of the possibility of such damage.]]></content:encoded>
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		<wp:post_id>65</wp:post_id>
		<wp:post_date><![CDATA[2006-03-15 22:53:17]]></wp:post_date>
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		<category domain="author" nicename="femke"><![CDATA[Femke]]></category>
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	<item>
		<title>Domestic manners</title>
		<link>http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/news/domestic-manners</link>
		<pubDate>Thu, 16 Mar 2006 09:54:27 +0000</pubDate>
		<dc:creator><![CDATA[nicolas]]></dc:creator>
		<guid isPermaLink="false">http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=69</guid>
		<description></description>
		<content:encoded><![CDATA[<img src="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/domestic-manners.jpg" alt="Domestic Manners" />


<a href="http://www.dustismo.com/">http://www.dustismo.com/</a>

Domestic Manners, by Dustin Norlander.

"This font is basically my handwritting. Why anyone would want to use my crappy handwritting for anything, I can't say. It would be a good way to forge a note from me I guess. Anyway, use it for whatever you want, its released under the GPL so change it if you need to. The name come from the book Domestic Manners of the Americans, by Fanny Trollope."

<img src="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/20041024-Dustismo_Roman.jpg" alt="20041024-Dustismo_Roman.jpg" /> 

Dustin Norlander has also released a series of font under the GPL license including Dustismo Roman, a standard serifed roman.

"It contains all the characters you should ever need, accents and special characters. I created this to be used with linux, as there was definitely a lack of quality fonts available for linux. Since then Bitstream released their Vera serif and sans-serif typeface under an open source style license--oh well. I like this one, its good for whatever you need. Released under the GPL so go ahead and include it in your own personal Linux variation."]]></content:encoded>
		<excerpt:encoded><![CDATA[]]></excerpt:encoded>
		<wp:post_id>69</wp:post_id>
		<wp:post_date><![CDATA[2006-03-16 10:54:27]]></wp:post_date>
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		<category domain="author" nicename="nicolas"><![CDATA[nicolas]]></category>
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		<title>LaTeX Project</title>
		<link>http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/typo/latex-project</link>
		<pubDate>Fri, 17 Mar 2006 14:31:31 +0000</pubDate>
		<dc:creator><![CDATA[Harrisson]]></dc:creator>
		<guid isPermaLink="false">http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=70</guid>
		<description></description>
		<content:encoded><![CDATA[From WORDS MADE FLESH
Code, Culture, Imagination
by Florian Cramer
(p22)

The idea that beauty materializes in numerical proportions according to mathematical laws continues to be popular in scientific and engineering cultures, too. Since the early 1970s, Donald Knuth, widely considered the founder of computer science as an independent academic discipline, published his textbooks under the title <em>The Art of Computer Programming</em>. He understands “art” as the formal beauty and logical elegance of the source code. The software TeX which he wrote to typeset his books correspondingly implements a classicist post-Renaissance typography whose notions of beauty are embedded in Knuth’s algorithms for line spacing and paragraph adjustment. At MIT, Knuth initiated a <em>project God and computers</em> whose results were an exhibition of Bible calligraphies and, in 2001, a book <em>Things a Computer Scientist Rarely Talks About</em>. In this book, Knuth remembers how as a student he read a computer program code that he found “absolutely beautiful. Reading it was just like hearing a symphony.” This was how he “got into software,” teaching it as an art rather than a science. <!--more-->The hacker credo put down by Steven Levy in 1983 that “you can create art and beauty with computers” has its roots in Knuth’s teaching. It ultimately means that a program is not a transparent tool for creating beauty—like, for example, a graphics program—, but that it is beautiful by itself. Both schools, highbrow academic computer science and more underground hacker culture, perpetuate a Pythagorean, classicist understanding of art as formal beauty. This concept blatantly lags behind modern concepts of art. Since romanticism and 20th century art, aesthetic understandings of art were not just about beauty, but included the sublime, grotesque and ugly as well. The same is true, implicitly at least, for the Greek and Roman antiquity whose highest art form, tragedies, were about violence and despair.

Download the text here:
<a href="http://pzwart.wdka.hro.nl/mdr/research/fcramer/wordsmadeflesh/">http://pzwart.wdka.hro.nl/mdr/research/fcramer/wordsmadeflesh/</a>]]></content:encoded>
		<excerpt:encoded><![CDATA[]]></excerpt:encoded>
		<wp:post_id>70</wp:post_id>
		<wp:post_date><![CDATA[2006-03-17 15:31:31]]></wp:post_date>
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		<title>Tigrrrrrrrrrrre!!!</title>
		<link>http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/news/tigrrrrrrrrrrre</link>
		<pubDate>Mon, 20 Mar 2006 22:50:14 +0000</pubDate>
		<dc:creator><![CDATA[Harrisson]]></dc:creator>
		<guid isPermaLink="false">http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=71</guid>
		<description></description>
		<content:encoded><![CDATA[<img src="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/tigre2.jpg" alt="tigre2.jpg" />

Le Tigre, here, is not the translation of a Mac os in french, nor a No-Wave grrrrl band. It's a brand new generalist weekly french magazine that released its first issue 3 days ago. The big thing here is that this mag is entirely set on Scribus, and proove by fact that this FLOSS can be incorporated on a professionnal workflow. The 24 pages magazine took choice of incorporating no ads, and thus depends on the readers.

<a href="http://www.le-tigre.net/">www.le-tigre.net</a>

Articles are described as wide and various, but precise and entertaining, from comment of worldnews to science fiction. More once touched and seen in real!]]></content:encoded>
		<excerpt:encoded><![CDATA[]]></excerpt:encoded>
		<wp:post_id>71</wp:post_id>
		<wp:post_date><![CDATA[2006-03-20 23:50:14]]></wp:post_date>
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	<item>
		<title>Stylesheets</title>
		<link>http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/tools/scribus-stylesheets</link>
		<pubDate>Tue, 21 Mar 2006 10:57:01 +0000</pubDate>
		<dc:creator><![CDATA[Femke]]></dc:creator>
		<guid isPermaLink="false">http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=73</guid>
		<description></description>
		<content:encoded><![CDATA[Often I have wondered why DTP programmes did not have both an "edit source" view and a "preview mode", so that you could alternate between those two views and apply styles with more rigour if needed.
<!--more-->
You can see why I am so excited about using the Story Editor in Scribus. It feels much closer to marking up HTML, which in turn is familiar to the pre-computer practice of writing type setting instructions.

But looking at a Scribus .sla file in an editor, I realise that typographic markup is completely mixed with character data (how on earth does the story editor manage to pick out the right information!), which might explain why this idea could be obvious in theory but harder to achieve in practice.

Part of the unpredictability of style-behaviour in Scribus (in fact, this is a problem with any text-layout programme I have ever used) I guess has to do with this mixing as I can imagine re-applying styles a few times will result in messy code. It feels quite similar to what happens when applying deprecated markup in NVU or Dreamweaver from the WYSIWYG editor, without cleaning up the source.

Other problems might occur through irregular interpretation of cascading effects, but this is just a guess.

Right now, Styles in Scribus operate way more confused and less sophisticated than even the simplest Cascading Style Sheet does. If Scribus would apply the web standards ethics (separating content from form ;-)), could it be possible to simply edit those styles in a file?

Over the last few years many graphic designers have taught themselves to handle CSS stylesheets with grace, and it would seem logic to apply that logic / these skills to Desk top publishing too.

In this way, Scribus could become more transparent and compatible with other media. Not only through the way it handles its file-formats (import-export), but also through how it connects different practices of design.]]></content:encoded>
		<excerpt:encoded><![CDATA[]]></excerpt:encoded>
		<wp:post_id>73</wp:post_id>
		<wp:post_date><![CDATA[2006-03-21 11:57:01]]></wp:post_date>
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	<item>
		<title>It is in the air</title>
		<link>http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/tools/it-is-in-the-air</link>
		<pubDate>Tue, 21 Mar 2006 17:41:00 +0000</pubDate>
		<dc:creator><![CDATA[Femke]]></dc:creator>
		<guid isPermaLink="false">http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=74</guid>
		<description></description>
		<content:encoded><![CDATA[Reporting bugs is frustrating work. I feel pretty stupid when a bug apparently was already reported months ago (was it worth reporting? Am I simply annoying developers by telling them once again something does not work? Should I have spent even more time finding duplicates?), but at the same time it would be worse when it was just me having an idea or experience.
<!--more-->
Anyways, I am really happy to find many versions of the same issue:
<ul>
	<li><strong>Differential paragraph styles</strong></li>
	<li><strong>Cascading styles</strong></li>
	<li><strong>Depending paragraph styles</strong></li>
</ul>
... it is in the air.

If Scribus could pull that off... it would make Open Source Publishing radically different and exciting.]]></content:encoded>
		<excerpt:encoded><![CDATA[]]></excerpt:encoded>
		<wp:post_id>74</wp:post_id>
		<wp:post_date><![CDATA[2006-03-21 18:41:00]]></wp:post_date>
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	<item>
		<title>Xara Xtreme Xbecomes Xopen Xsource.</title>
		<link>http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/news/xara-xtreme-xbecomes-xopen-xsource</link>
		<pubDate>Wed, 22 Mar 2006 11:16:20 +0000</pubDate>
		<dc:creator><![CDATA[Harrisson]]></dc:creator>
		<guid isPermaLink="false">http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=76</guid>
		<description></description>
		<content:encoded><![CDATA[Xara Xtreme is a vector based software. It runs under Windows and Linux environment. It is a "crossover" software, means it manages pixels and vectors at the same time.

After 15 years of proprietary software status, Xara is operating a strategical migration to open source. The fact that Adobe purchased Macromedia put the developper in a uncomfortable concurrencial situation. 
<!--more-->
Opening the software to GPL is hoped to bring "consolidation" via FLOSS communities, inspired by the succesfull Inkscape model. 

The 2 societies are currently in contact to synchronise on a common file format, and to develop a converter which would enable to turn Xara (Xar) into SVG (Scalable Vector Graphics - around which Inkscape is constructed). This would give the ability for both sotwares to import and export numbers of other formats as well.

The Mac OSX version is still in development. 
<strong>Xara Xtreme on the Mac</strong>
<em>We have a new cross-platform code base, WXWidgets based, that is cross platform C++ and should work on the Mac, but we're short of Mac developers and testers that can help progress this. If you're a Mac developer willing to help us please contact us. Our first stage goal is simply to get a working viewer to the same level as the Linux build.</em>

<a href="http://www.xaraxtreme.org/">www.xaraxtreme.org</a>]]></content:encoded>
		<excerpt:encoded><![CDATA[]]></excerpt:encoded>
		<wp:post_id>76</wp:post_id>
		<wp:post_date><![CDATA[2006-03-22 12:16:20]]></wp:post_date>
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		<title>decodeunicode.org project</title>
		<link>http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/news/decodeunicodeorg-project</link>
		<pubDate>Wed, 22 Mar 2006 11:34:07 +0000</pubDate>
		<dc:creator><![CDATA[Harrisson]]></dc:creator>
		<guid isPermaLink="false">http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=78</guid>
		<description></description>
		<content:encoded><![CDATA[<img id="image79" src="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/decodunicod.png" alt="decodunicod.png" />

<a href="http://decodeunicode.org">http://decodeunicode.org</a>



<blockquote>Is an independent online-platform for digital type culture, initiated by the Department of Design at the University of Applied Sciences in Mainz, Germany.

The project is supported by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) and has the objectives of creating a basis for fundamental typographic research and facilitating a textual approach to the characters of the world for all computer users.

The website uses freely available data of the Unicode Standard 4.0.1 © The Unicode Consortium, 1990 – 2003, especially UnicodeData.txt

(Some rights reserved. All texts and images on the website are protected by a Creative Commons License. You may reuse and redistribute them for any purpose other than commercial use.)</blockquote>

]]></content:encoded>
		<excerpt:encoded><![CDATA[]]></excerpt:encoded>
		<wp:post_id>78</wp:post_id>
		<wp:post_date><![CDATA[2006-03-22 12:34:07]]></wp:post_date>
		<wp:post_date_gmt><![CDATA[2006-03-22 11:34:07]]></wp:post_date_gmt>
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		<wp:post_name><![CDATA[decodeunicodeorg-project]]></wp:post_name>
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	<item>
		<title>This font is a ripoff, said the Invalidity Division</title>
		<link>http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/typo/this-font-is-a-ripoff-said-the-invalidity-division</link>
		<pubDate>Wed, 05 Apr 2006 08:40:01 +0000</pubDate>
		<dc:creator><![CDATA[nicolas]]></dc:creator>
		<guid isPermaLink="false">http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=80</guid>
		<description></description>
		<content:encoded><![CDATA[<em>Invalidity Division</em>, sounds like science-fiction, doesn't it? <em>Registered community design</em> is not bad either. Time to start a jargon file...

<blockquote>[...]this time the dispute is over fonts; specifically Segoe, one of the typefaces Microsoft wants to use in Vista <font color="gray">(the new Windows, "bringing clarity to your world")</font>. Microsoft filed its "registered community design" for the font back in January of 2004, paid the required fee, and everything was great—until December.

Just days before the end of 2004, Heidelberger Druckmaschinen AG sought a "declaration of invalidity" from the Invalidity Division (yes, that is it's real name) of the Office for Harmonization in the Internal Market. As the owner of the Linotype brand, Heidelberger Druckmaschinen claimed that Microsoft's "new" font was a blatant ripoff of Linotype's own Frutiger LT 45 Light, which has been sold by the company for years. [...]

 "The typefaces of both designs have the same stroke thickness. The ratio from cap-height to descender height is equal. The proportion of character height to character pitch is identical. The type face in the specimen text does not show any differences."
So they threw Microsoft's application out and ordered the company to pay all the fees incurred by Heidelberger Druckmaschinen.
</blockquote>

Read online: <a href="http://arstechnica.com/news.ars/post/20060404-6517.html">http://arstechnica.com/news.ar...</a>
]]></content:encoded>
		<excerpt:encoded><![CDATA[]]></excerpt:encoded>
		<wp:post_id>80</wp:post_id>
		<wp:post_date><![CDATA[2006-04-05 09:40:01]]></wp:post_date>
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		<category domain="author" nicename="nicolas"><![CDATA[nicolas]]></category>
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		<wp:comment>
			<wp:comment_id>160</wp:comment_id>
			<wp:comment_author><![CDATA[bernhard fraling]]></wp:comment_author>
			<wp:comment_author_email><![CDATA[info@fraling.de]]></wp:comment_author_email>
			<wp:comment_author_url>http://www.fraling.de</wp:comment_author_url>
			<wp:comment_author_IP><![CDATA[62.143.3.196]]></wp:comment_author_IP>
			<wp:comment_date><![CDATA[2006-08-12 19:54:48]]></wp:comment_date>
			<wp:comment_date_gmt><![CDATA[2006-08-12 18:54:48]]></wp:comment_date_gmt>
			<wp:comment_content><![CDATA[you are already at the second page of web blog in the search results when i type "druckmaschinen" which is the german word for printing machinery. I am justat the beginning to create a web blog called www.fratext.de foccused to the printing machinery business

best regards
bernhard]]></wp:comment_content>
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			<wp:comment_parent>0</wp:comment_parent>
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	</item>
	<item>
		<title>The Tomorrow Book / Printing Party 0.1</title>
		<link>http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/news/the-tomorrow-book-printing-party-01</link>
		<pubDate>Fri, 02 Jun 2006 21:35:50 +0000</pubDate>
		<dc:creator><![CDATA[Femke]]></dc:creator>
		<guid isPermaLink="false">http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=84</guid>
		<description></description>
		<content:encoded><![CDATA[<a href="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/DSC00539.JPG"><img src="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/_DSC00539.JPG" width="400" height="300" alt="printing on demand" title="printing on demand"  /></a><small>Production line set up for the scanning, lay-out (in Scribus of course!), printing and binding of <em>The Continuous Present</em></small>

On May 18-19 <em>The Continuous Present</em> was printed-on-demand at the Jan van Eyck Academie in Maastricht. This publication was developed in the context of <em>The Tomorrows Book</em>, an ongoing investigation into the possible futures of reading, publishing and designing books. 
<em>Tomorrows Book</em> according to Harrisson:
<ul>
	<li>Books are coded ensembles of codes (language, typography, softwares…).</li>
	<li>Independance of thought depends on independance of the codes.</li>
	<li>Tomorrows book depends on this independance.</li>
</ul>
]]></content:encoded>
		<excerpt:encoded><![CDATA[]]></excerpt:encoded>
		<wp:post_id>84</wp:post_id>
		<wp:post_date><![CDATA[2006-06-02 22:35:50]]></wp:post_date>
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		<category domain="author" nicename="femke"><![CDATA[Femke]]></category>
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		<title>A fish can&#039;t judge the water</title>
		<link>http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/news/a-fish-cant-judge-the-water</link>
		<pubDate>Fri, 02 Jun 2006 21:54:51 +0000</pubDate>
		<dc:creator><![CDATA[Femke]]></dc:creator>
		<guid isPermaLink="false">http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=85</guid>
		<description></description>
		<content:encoded><![CDATA[<small><a href="http://www.constantvzw.com">Constant's</a> contribution to <a href="http://www.okno.be/">OknoPublic01</a>, May 26 2006</small>

<tt>New media curator --- information architect -- theater maker -- science fiction writer -- data base programmer -- media designer or software artist: we use computer programmes to write, read, listen, publish, edit and play. More than often we do all these things at the same time and in connection to each other.</tt>

<tt>But do we use software to think?</tt>

<tt>------</tt>
<!--more-->

<tt>My physiotherapist used the following analogy to explain how humans use tools to negotiate the space around their bodies:</tt>

<tt>"If you prepare a sauce..." she said, "and stir it with a wooden spoon... you will be able to feel at which moment exactly the starch starts to burn to the bottom of the pan".</tt>

<tt>A wooden spoon might not be the kind of glamour and glitter a post human cyborg is looking for, but I think it is in this unspectacular way our daily operations with software help to make sense of our environment.</tt>

<tt>It has become our natural habitat. We practice software until we in-corporate its choreography. We make it disappear in the background. A seamless experience. We become one with our extensions.</tt>

<tt>Counter to this magic vanishing, with each possibility opened up by an operating system or software package, the space within which making can take place is circumscribed.</tt>

<tt>Software is never politically neutral, nor are its aesthetics without colour: each product prescribes use, and results in specific forms, sounds and shapes.</tt>

<tt>Software produces culture at the same time as it is produced by culture. It is shaped through and locked into economic models of production and distribution. This is obviously as much true for a wooden spoon as it is for Apple Quicktime Broadcaster but in software this "lock" is apparent in the crudest way possible.
Fortunately no Anti Piracy Police is interested in my kitchen. Nor are the products of my cooking subject to Digital Rights Management. </tt>

<tt>Do You Have The Right Plug-in Installed?
It Looks Like You Are Writing A Letter!
You Have Unused Icons On Your Desktop...
PLEASE READ THIS SOFTWARE LICENSE AGREEMENT CAREFULLY BEFORE DOWNLOADING OR USING THE SOFTWARE.</tt>

<tt>Could we understand what software does to our work and working patterns without being able to step away from it? What if our work is not only made with, but also through software? What if our work IS software?</tt>

<tt>Can we think ourselves outside it?</tt>

<tt>------</tt>

<tt>"someone can know how to type but not know how to read the words produced (...) just as someone can be able to read a typescript without knowing how to type" (Katherine Hayles - How We Became Posthuman)</tt>

<tt>Because we want to be both typist and reader, Constant is committed to Open Source Software. Or more precisely: we are interested in the tension between those two positions.</tt>

<tt>Constant is not a community of programmers. We do share a desire to adjust, reinvent, change and examine the instruments we use and we like to create situations which allow for that kind of reflection.</tt>

<tt>Our decision to use and produce Open Source tools is therefore as much political, as it is in line with the nature of our artistic and intellectual interests.</tt>

<tt>As each tool is scripted with use, we very much enjoy to be immersed in a milieu (or in fact: a stockpile of milieus) which emanates collaboration rather than individual authorship, which builds on exchange rather than on exclusivity. A milieu which supports biodiversity; a rich mixture of programmes and approaches.</tt>

<tt>Of course we get frustrated sometimes using Open Source software; one does not always have the time and energy to not know what to expect. But it is a luxury to find other experiences than those we were used to; it offers an opportunity to rethink “user-friendly-ness” to start with. "Usability" might mean something else all together depending on who is using something, and what she is using it for.</tt>

<tt>We are ultimately interested in making differences, glitches, misunderstandings and hick ups productive. Our work is, as much as the software we use and produce, “work in progress” and this means it’s cut-off points are not necessarily concealed.</tt>

<tt>We like to cross boundaries, but we don't want to erase them. We traverse different worlds, we do not make them the same. In fact, we are interested in everything that shows up in the cracks.</tt>]]></content:encoded>
		<excerpt:encoded><![CDATA[]]></excerpt:encoded>
		<wp:post_id>85</wp:post_id>
		<wp:post_date><![CDATA[2006-06-02 22:54:51]]></wp:post_date>
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		<title>&quot;instable&quot;, mais actuellement utilisée</title>
		<link>http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/news/le-tigre-proudly-powered-by-scribus</link>
		<pubDate>Fri, 02 Jun 2006 22:37:22 +0000</pubDate>
		<dc:creator><![CDATA[Femke]]></dc:creator>
		<guid isPermaLink="false">http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=86</guid>
		<description></description>
		<content:encoded><![CDATA[<a href="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/scribus.jpg"><img src="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/_scribus.jpg" width="450" height="319" alt="scribus article" title="scribus article"  /></a>
The French weekly <em>Le Tigre</em> announces: 
<blockquote>This week, we have an article about free softwares in "Le Tigre":
<a href="http://www.le-tigre.net/No11.html">http://www.le-tigre.net/No11.html</a>
There is a "encadré" about Scribus. You can see it there: 
<a href="http://rdereel.free.fr/letigre/011/scribus.jpg">http://rdereel.free.fr/letigre/011/scribus.jpg
</a>
</blockquote>
]]></content:encoded>
		<excerpt:encoded><![CDATA[]]></excerpt:encoded>
		<wp:post_id>86</wp:post_id>
		<wp:post_date><![CDATA[2006-06-02 23:37:22]]></wp:post_date>
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	<item>
		<title>Old News</title>
		<link>http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/news/old-news</link>
		<pubDate>Sun, 04 Jun 2006 11:25:23 +0000</pubDate>
		<dc:creator><![CDATA[Femke]]></dc:creator>
		<guid isPermaLink="false">http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=87</guid>
		<description></description>
		<content:encoded><![CDATA[Discovering that there are so little free fonts* available, keeps surprising us. But did you know that even the logo for Debian, the version of Linux that amongst others Ubuntu is based on, was done in a proprietary font (<a href="http://www.bertholdtypes.com/bq_library/90090.html">Poppl Laudatio Condensed</a>)?
<p><a class="imagelink" href="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/openlogo-100.jpg" title="openlogo-100.jpg"><img id="image175" src="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/openlogo-100.jpg" alt="openlogo-100.jpg" /></a></p>
<small>* There is a lot of Freeware around, but hardly any fonts explicitly allow for re-modification or derivative works.</small>]]></content:encoded>
		<excerpt:encoded><![CDATA[]]></excerpt:encoded>
		<wp:post_id>87</wp:post_id>
		<wp:post_date><![CDATA[2006-06-04 12:25:23]]></wp:post_date>
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		<wp:comment>
			<wp:comment_id>1702</wp:comment_id>
			<wp:comment_author><![CDATA[dave]]></wp:comment_author>
			<wp:comment_author_email><![CDATA[dave@lab6.com]]></wp:comment_author_email>
			<wp:comment_author_url>http://www.openfontlibrary.org</wp:comment_author_url>
			<wp:comment_author_IP><![CDATA[84.194.201.121]]></wp:comment_author_IP>
			<wp:comment_date><![CDATA[2007-02-23 01:28:32]]></wp:comment_date>
			<wp:comment_date_gmt><![CDATA[2007-02-23 00:28:32]]></wp:comment_date_gmt>
			<wp:comment_content><![CDATA[Even more amusing is that the FSF logo is set in Trebuchet - a *Microsoft* font!]]></wp:comment_content>
			<wp:comment_approved><![CDATA[1]]></wp:comment_approved>
			<wp:comment_type><![CDATA[]]></wp:comment_type>
			<wp:comment_parent>0</wp:comment_parent>
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		</wp:comment>
	</item>
	<item>
		<title>DTPblender</title>
		<link>http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/tools/dtpblender</link>
		<pubDate>Sun, 04 Jun 2006 12:25:18 +0000</pubDate>
		<dc:creator><![CDATA[Femke]]></dc:creator>
		<guid isPermaLink="false">http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=89</guid>
		<description></description>
		<content:encoded><![CDATA[<a href="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/blender.jpg"><img src="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/_blender.jpg" width="450" height="337" alt="blender screenshot" title="blender screenshot"  /></a>
A new kid on the block? Makers of 3D-modeling software Blender announce that they have developed a "solution for fast and flexible creation of 2D graphics and layouts for web site design and print". Its interface -no surprise - resembles Blender and other proprietary animation packages such as Flash; the website mentions upfront that the package does not offer output like CMYK or Postscript. Although a first quick try is not immediately convincing (but this could be because I am not very familiar with the strand of softwares DTPblender is based on), it could be interesting to radically combine web design and page lay-out. More after further testing.

More information and download here: <a href="http://dtpblender.instinctive.de/cms/Main/Home">http://dtpblender.instinctive.de</a>
]]></content:encoded>
		<excerpt:encoded><![CDATA[]]></excerpt:encoded>
		<wp:post_id>89</wp:post_id>
		<wp:post_date><![CDATA[2006-06-04 13:25:18]]></wp:post_date>
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	<item>
		<title>How To Print A Booklet In 19 Easy Steps</title>
		<link>http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/tools/how-to-print-a-booklet-in-16-steps</link>
		<pubDate>Sun, 04 Jun 2006 13:36:22 +0000</pubDate>
		<dc:creator><![CDATA[Femke]]></dc:creator>
		<guid isPermaLink="false">http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=90</guid>
		<description></description>
		<content:encoded><![CDATA[The focus of this recipe is on the last bit: rearranging pages so that you can easily print out nice booklets. For a quick-and-dirty solution you can use Abiword or OpenOffice for the page-lay out part but Scribus is essential when you want to be precise with typography.

The recipe is based on the How-To posted on the Scribus Wiki:
<a href="http://wiki.scribus.net/index.php/How_to_make_a_booklet">http://wiki.scribus.net/index.php/How_to_make_a_booklet</a>.

To make this recipe, you need to open a <em>terminal</em>, <em>shell</em> or work in the <em>commandline</em>. If you have never done this before, have a look a this tutorial: <a href="http://linuxcommand.org/">http://linuxcommand.org/</a>

You can of course print texts of any length, but folding and stapling more than 12 sheets of paper gets really hard so we suggest making booklets of 48 pages maximum.

The tools mentioned are all available in most software repositories, and can be installed using Ubuntu's Synaptic.

<a href="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/Maternal_PoliticsB.pdf"><img title="sample" src="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/_sample.jpg" alt="sample" width="250" height="177" /></a>
<small><a href="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/Maternal_PoliticsB.pdf">Download sample .pdf file</a>; if you simply want to print this document, start the recipe at step 13.
The text used in this example is available here: <a href="http://www.constantvzw.com/cyberf/book/articles.php?pg=art26">http://www.constantvzw.com/cyberf/book...</a>.</small>

<!--more-->
<strong>Ingredients</strong>
<ul>
	<li>Linux operating system* [Debian / Ubuntu]</li>
	<li>Browser [Firefox]</li>
	<li>A text available under an open license</li>
	<li>xpdf-utils (includes: pdftotext, pdftops, <em>ps2pdf?</em>)</li>
	<li>Texteditor [Gedit]</li>
	<li>Lay-out software [Scribus 1.3.3.1]</li>
	<li>Font [Bitstream Charter]</li>
	<li>psutils (includes: psnup, psbook)</li>
	<li>Printer</li>
	<li>Paper</li>
	<li>Stapler</li>
	<li>A piece of soft cardboard (side of a box for example)</li>
</ul>
<strong>Print A Booklet In 19 Easy Steps</strong>
<ol>
	<li>Choose any text that is available under an open license</li>
	<li> Download the text to your harddisk in .pdf format or copy the text into a text editor</li>
	<li>If you have downloaded a .pdf file, you need to convert the .pdf to a plain text file using the commandline:
<code>~$ pdftotext infile.pdf</code></li>
	<li>Clean up the file as much as possible (remove unneccessary white lines, check whether any other corrections need to be made) in a text editor and save the document as .txt</li>
	<li>Open <em>Scribus</em> and start a new document with the following options selected: <em>Size: A5</em>, <em>Number of pages: 48</em>, <em>Page Layout: double sided</em> and <em>Automatic Text Frames</em></li>
	<li>Import the .txt file in the Automatic Text Frame and do the necessary lay-out; add page numbers etc.</li>
	<li>Remove all empty pages so that you end up with a multiple of 4 pages (either 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, 28, 32, 36, 40, 44 or 48 pages).</li>
	<li>Save / export the document as .pdf with fonts embedded</li>
	<li>Using the commandline, convert the pdf file to postscript:
<code>~$ pdftops -paper match infile.pdf outfile.ps</code></li>
	<li>Rearrange the pages so that when printed and folded, each page ends up in the right place (when your booklet has 8 pages, page 1 should be placed opposite of page 8, page 2 opposite of 7 and 4 opposite of 5). <em>n</em> is the amount of pages in your booklet.
<code>~$ psbook -s<em>n</em> infile.ps outfile.ps</code></li>
	<li>Arrange two A5 pages next to each other on one A4 sheet (-2 refers to the amount of pages on the A4):
<code>~$ psnup -2 -PA5 infile.ps outfile.ps</code></li>
	<li> Convert the document back to .pdf format (This seems a redundant step, but without it I had problems with placing, so...)
<code>~$ ps2pdf infile.ps outfile.pdf</code></li>
	<li>Also use the commandline to print first the even pages (<em>myprinter</em> is the name of your printer, <em>n</em> is the amount of copies)
<code> ~$ lpr -P myprinter -o page-set=even -#1 infile.pdf</code></li>
	<li>When the even pages are printed, you need to re-arrange the order of the pages so that the first page comes last.</li>
	<li>Put the pages upside down back in the printer</li>
	<li>Now print the odd pages
<code>~$ lpr -P myprinter -o page-set=odd -#1 infile.pdf</code></li>
	<li>Fold the pages from A4 to A5</li>
	<li>Fold the stack back open and place it on the piece of cardboard with the cover facing you. Click open your stapler so you can staple the stack in the middle</li>
	<li>Gently remove the stack (which is now stuck to the cardboard) and fold the staples back in.</li>
</ol>
<strong>FINISHED!</strong>

<small>*It should work on OSX too, but I have not tested this yet</small>]]></content:encoded>
		<excerpt:encoded><![CDATA[]]></excerpt:encoded>
		<wp:post_id>90</wp:post_id>
		<wp:post_date><![CDATA[2006-06-04 14:36:22]]></wp:post_date>
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		<category domain="author" nicename="femke"><![CDATA[Femke]]></category>
		<category domain="category" nicename="live"><![CDATA[Live]]></category>
		<category domain="post_tag" nicename="printing-publishing"><![CDATA[Printing + Publishing]]></category>
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			<wp:meta_value><![CDATA[a:12:{i:0;O:8:"stdClass":2:{s:7:"post_id";s:3:"346";s:5:"score";s:17:"49.03606110585683";}i:1;O:8:"stdClass":2:{s:7:"post_id";s:2:"91";s:5:"score";s:17:"48.52866328795551";}i:2;O:8:"stdClass":2:{s:7:"post_id";s:4:"6836";s:5:"score";s:18:"45.185169537573174";}i:3;O:8:"stdClass":2:{s:7:"post_id";s:4:"7213";s:5:"score";s:18:"43.928913457100045";}i:4;O:8:"stdClass":2:{s:7:"post_id";s:3:"287";s:5:"score";s:17:"41.45309382678225";}i:5;O:8:"stdClass":2:{s:7:"post_id";s:3:"129";s:5:"score";s:17:"39.86700346078515";}i:6;O:8:"stdClass":2:{s:7:"post_id";s:4:"6043";s:5:"score";s:16:"38.6877414729711";}i:7;O:8:"stdClass":2:{s:7:"post_id";s:4:"6814";s:5:"score";s:18:"37.774144192481344";}i:8;O:8:"stdClass":2:{s:7:"post_id";s:4:"1290";s:5:"score";s:17:"37.64167547603359";}i:9;O:8:"stdClass":2:{s:7:"post_id";s:3:"106";s:5:"score";s:18:"37.412544127669285";}i:10;O:8:"stdClass":2:{s:7:"post_id";s:4:"1907";s:5:"score";s:17:"36.48772737441246";}i:11;O:8:"stdClass":2:{s:7:"post_id";s:3:"196";s:5:"score";s:17:"36.36647813073178";}}]]></wp:meta_value>
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			<wp:meta_value><![CDATA[7798]]></wp:meta_value>
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		<wp:comment>
			<wp:comment_id>13</wp:comment_id>
			<wp:comment_author><![CDATA[harrisson]]></wp:comment_author>
			<wp:comment_author_email><![CDATA[harrisson@swing.be]]></wp:comment_author_email>
			<wp:comment_author_url></wp:comment_author_url>
			<wp:comment_author_IP><![CDATA[87.65.141.207]]></wp:comment_author_IP>
			<wp:comment_date><![CDATA[2006-06-20 16:22:13]]></wp:comment_date>
			<wp:comment_date_gmt><![CDATA[2006-06-20 15:22:13]]></wp:comment_date_gmt>
			<wp:comment_content><![CDATA[Tested on mac, under ubuntu ppc - and it seems working fine.]]></wp:comment_content>
			<wp:comment_approved><![CDATA[1]]></wp:comment_approved>
			<wp:comment_type><![CDATA[]]></wp:comment_type>
			<wp:comment_parent>0</wp:comment_parent>
			<wp:comment_user_id>0</wp:comment_user_id>
		</wp:comment>
		<wp:comment>
			<wp:comment_id>73</wp:comment_id>
			<wp:comment_author><![CDATA[harrisson]]></wp:comment_author>
			<wp:comment_author_email><![CDATA[une.ombre@gmail.com]]></wp:comment_author_email>
			<wp:comment_author_url></wp:comment_author_url>
			<wp:comment_author_IP><![CDATA[81.245.62.183]]></wp:comment_author_IP>
			<wp:comment_date><![CDATA[2006-07-06 15:54:57]]></wp:comment_date>
			<wp:comment_date_gmt><![CDATA[2006-07-06 14:54:57]]></wp:comment_date_gmt>
			<wp:comment_content><![CDATA[En français!

Comment imprimer une brochure en 19 étapes.

Le but de cette recette réside dans sa derniere bouchée: réarranger les pages pour pouvoir imprimer facilement de beaux petits livres. Une solution rapide et pas chere consiste a utiliser Abiworld ou OpenOffice pour la mise en page, mais Scribus est necessaire si vous voulez etre un peu précis en typographie.

Cette recette est basé sur le "comment faire" du wiki Scribus
http://wiki.scribus.net/index.php/How_to_make_a_booklet

Pour réaliser cette recette, vous aurez besoin du Terminal, Shell, ou travailler en ligne de commande. Si vous n'avez jamais fait cela, jetez un oeil a ce mode d'emploi:
http://linuxcommand.org/

Vous pouvez bien sur imprimer des textes de n'importe quelle longueur, mais le pliage et l'agraphage de document de plus de 12 pages de papier est un peu compliqué. Nous vous suggerons donc de fabriquer des booklets de 48 pages maximum.

Les outils mentionnés sont disponibles sur la plupart des "repositories" de logiciels, et peuvent etre installés facilement grace au Sinaptic de Ubuntu.

Ingrédients:
-	un systeme operatoire Linux, comme Ubuntu ou Debian
-	un Browser (firefox)
-	Un texte disponible en licence libre
-	xpdf-utils (contenant pdftotext, pdftops, ps2pdf)
-	Texteditor [Gedit]
-	Un logiciel de mise en page [Scribus 1.3.3.1]
-	une Fonte (bitstream Charter)
-	psutils (comprenant psnup, psbook)
-	une imprimante
-	du  papier
-	une agrapheuse
-	un bout de carton 

Réalisation:

1.	Prenez un beau texte disponible sous une licence libre.

2.	Téléchargez ce texte sur votre disque dur, sous un format .pdf, ou copiez le texte dans un editeur de texte.

3	Si vous avez téléchargé un fichier .pdf, vous aurez besoin de le convertir en format texte en utilisant dans la console la commande: 
~$ pdftotext fichieraconvertir.pdf

4	Nettoyez le fichier au maximum (enlevez les ligne vides inutiles, double espaces. Le mieux les corrections sont faites, le plus facile sera la mise en page) dans l'éditeur de texte, et sauvez le document en .txt

5	Lancez Scribus et créz un nouveau document en selectionnant les options suivantes:
taille: a5
nombre de pages: 48
layout: double page
&amp; bloc de texte automatique.

6	Importez le fichier .txt dans le cadre de texte automatique et faites le layout necessaire. Dans Maquette, vous pouvez ajoutez le folio (#).


7	Enlevez les pages non utilisées, en sorte d'obtenir un document dont le nombre de pages est un multiple de 4 (4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, 28, 32, 36, 40, 44 ou 48 pages) 

8	Sauvez et exportez le document en format .pdf, avec les polices incorporées.

9	Avec la ligne de commande dans la console, convertissez le fichier pdf en fichier postscript.
~$ pdftops -paper match fichierentrant.pdf fichiersortant.ps

10 	Il faut maintenant réarranger les pages pour qu'une fois imprimées et pliées, chaque page soit a la bonne place (quand le booklet a 8 pages, la page 1 doit etre en face de la page 8, la 2 en face de la 7, la 4 en face de la 5). n est le nombre de pages du booklet:
~$ psbook -sn fichierentrant.ps fichiersortant.ps

11	Placez 2 pages A5 l'une a coté de l'autre sur une page A$ (-2 designe le nombre de pages sur le A4)
~$ psnup -2 -PA5 infile.ps outfile.ps

12	Convertissez le document en .pdf (cela parait redondant, mais sans cela nous avons rencontré des probles de placement, alors...)
~$ ps2pdf infile.ps outfile.pdf

13	Utilisez aussi la ligne de commande pour imprimer les pages paires en premier (Monimprimante est le nom de votre imprimante, n est le nombre de pages)
 ~$ lpr -P monimprimante -o page-set=even -#1 infile.pdf

14	Quand les pages sont imprimées, vous devez ré-arranger l'ordre de celles -ci pour que la premiere page arrive en dernier

15	Placez les pages le dessus-dessous dans l'imprimante.

16	Imprimez les pages impaires
~$ lpr -P monimprimante -o page-set=odd -#1 infile.pdf

17	Pliez les pages de A4 en A5

18	Placez le dos de la brochure ouverte sur le bout de carton, la couverture vers vous. Agraphez au milieu en maintenant l'agrapheuse ouverte

19	Decrochez gentiment la brochure (fixée au carton) et repliez les agraphes vers l'interieur.

Voila!]]></wp:comment_content>
			<wp:comment_approved><![CDATA[1]]></wp:comment_approved>
			<wp:comment_type><![CDATA[]]></wp:comment_type>
			<wp:comment_parent>0</wp:comment_parent>
			<wp:comment_user_id>0</wp:comment_user_id>
		</wp:comment>
		<wp:comment>
			<wp:comment_id>5935</wp:comment_id>
			<wp:comment_author><![CDATA[Till Mossakowski]]></wp:comment_author>
			<wp:comment_author_email><![CDATA[till@informatik.uni-bremen.de]]></wp:comment_author_email>
			<wp:comment_author_url></wp:comment_author_url>
			<wp:comment_author_IP><![CDATA[84.137.150.14]]></wp:comment_author_IP>
			<wp:comment_date><![CDATA[2007-09-02 17:27:50]]></wp:comment_date>
			<wp:comment_date_gmt><![CDATA[2007-09-02 16:27:50]]></wp:comment_date_gmt>
			<wp:comment_content><![CDATA[If you have a pdf, you can directly start with step 9. Although Scribus is a good tool, it is not related to booklet printing at all. It only happens that the How-to for booklet printing has appeared in the Scribus Wiki.

If you have Acrobat Reader, you can also replace step 9 with
~$ acroread -toPostScript infile.pdf outfile.ps
This often gives better results.]]></wp:comment_content>
			<wp:comment_approved><![CDATA[1]]></wp:comment_approved>
			<wp:comment_type><![CDATA[]]></wp:comment_type>
			<wp:comment_parent>0</wp:comment_parent>
			<wp:comment_user_id>0</wp:comment_user_id>
		</wp:comment>
		<wp:comment>
			<wp:comment_id>7981</wp:comment_id>
			<wp:comment_author><![CDATA[TRAILER 31 - fri 29 sept -&gt; 2 oct 2007 &laquo; UNIDEE in Residence 2007]]></wp:comment_author>
			<wp:comment_author_email><![CDATA[]]></wp:comment_author_email>
			<wp:comment_author_url>http://unidee07.wordpress.com/2007/09/24/trailer-31-fri-29-sept-2-oct-2007/</wp:comment_author_url>
			<wp:comment_author_IP><![CDATA[72.232.151.20]]></wp:comment_author_IP>
			<wp:comment_date><![CDATA[2007-09-24 10:48:10]]></wp:comment_date>
			<wp:comment_date_gmt><![CDATA[2007-09-24 09:48:10]]></wp:comment_date_gmt>
			<wp:comment_content><![CDATA[[...] Recipy: http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=90 [...]]]></wp:comment_content>
			<wp:comment_approved><![CDATA[1]]></wp:comment_approved>
			<wp:comment_type><![CDATA[pingback]]></wp:comment_type>
			<wp:comment_parent>0</wp:comment_parent>
			<wp:comment_user_id>0</wp:comment_user_id>
		</wp:comment>
		<wp:comment>
			<wp:comment_id>28176</wp:comment_id>
			<wp:comment_author><![CDATA[Niklas]]></wp:comment_author>
			<wp:comment_author_email><![CDATA[nhulden@saunalahti.fi]]></wp:comment_author_email>
			<wp:comment_author_url>http://whynot</wp:comment_author_url>
			<wp:comment_author_IP><![CDATA[85.76.249.22]]></wp:comment_author_IP>
			<wp:comment_date><![CDATA[2008-03-18 20:52:25]]></wp:comment_date>
			<wp:comment_date_gmt><![CDATA[2008-03-18 19:52:25]]></wp:comment_date_gmt>
			<wp:comment_content><![CDATA[Why not skip some steps and use pdfbook instead?

regards
Niklas]]></wp:comment_content>
			<wp:comment_approved><![CDATA[1]]></wp:comment_approved>
			<wp:comment_type><![CDATA[]]></wp:comment_type>
			<wp:comment_parent>0</wp:comment_parent>
			<wp:comment_user_id>0</wp:comment_user_id>
		</wp:comment>
		<wp:comment>
			<wp:comment_id>39283</wp:comment_id>
			<wp:comment_author><![CDATA[Femke]]></wp:comment_author>
			<wp:comment_author_email><![CDATA[snelting@geuzen.org]]></wp:comment_author_email>
			<wp:comment_author_url>http://www.geuzen.org</wp:comment_author_url>
			<wp:comment_author_IP><![CDATA[212.68.194.238]]></wp:comment_author_IP>
			<wp:comment_date><![CDATA[2008-06-30 09:47:32]]></wp:comment_date>
			<wp:comment_date_gmt><![CDATA[2008-06-30 08:47:32]]></wp:comment_date_gmt>
			<wp:comment_content><![CDATA[Hey An,

After a bit of testing (you need to go all the way to the end; the in-between results are completely wrong)

pdftops -paper match A6.pdf A6.ps

psbook -s24 A6.ps A6book.ps

psnup -4 -pa4 -W105mm -H148mm A6book.ps A6up.ps

ps2pdf -sPAPERSIZE=a4 A6up.ps A6up.pdf

----

The final result is unfortunately not what you need; it places two succeeding spreads on one sheet; meaning you still cannot print this minibooklet recto verso. It looks like the latest version of Scribus (1.3.5) has imposition built in, but I don't know whether it can do more than 2 pages imposition.

on continue... :-)]]></wp:comment_content>
			<wp:comment_approved><![CDATA[1]]></wp:comment_approved>
			<wp:comment_type><![CDATA[]]></wp:comment_type>
			<wp:comment_parent>0</wp:comment_parent>
			<wp:comment_user_id>2</wp:comment_user_id>
		</wp:comment>
		<wp:comment>
			<wp:comment_id>38738</wp:comment_id>
			<wp:comment_author><![CDATA[An]]></wp:comment_author>
			<wp:comment_author_email><![CDATA[an@collectifs.net]]></wp:comment_author_email>
			<wp:comment_author_url></wp:comment_author_url>
			<wp:comment_author_IP><![CDATA[87.65.223.76]]></wp:comment_author_IP>
			<wp:comment_date><![CDATA[2008-06-23 12:51:14]]></wp:comment_date>
			<wp:comment_date_gmt><![CDATA[2008-06-23 11:51:14]]></wp:comment_date_gmt>
			<wp:comment_content><![CDATA[Hi,

It works fine and it is absolutely great!
I have been trying out ways to print on different formats, including A6 and A7. This requires to arrange the pages next to each other AND up and under each other. I tried the psnup commands -W -H and -w -h I found here:
http://linux.about.com/library/cmd/blcmdl1_psnup.htm

Unfortunately, it does not the job.
I guess it is the combination of arranging 4 or 8 pages on 1 A4 that causes the problem.
Any hints anyone?

Many thanks, An]]></wp:comment_content>
			<wp:comment_approved><![CDATA[1]]></wp:comment_approved>
			<wp:comment_type><![CDATA[]]></wp:comment_type>
			<wp:comment_parent>0</wp:comment_parent>
			<wp:comment_user_id>0</wp:comment_user_id>
		</wp:comment>
		<wp:comment>
			<wp:comment_id>45235</wp:comment_id>
			<wp:comment_author><![CDATA[Booklet Printing &laquo; Computer Magazines]]></wp:comment_author>
			<wp:comment_author_email><![CDATA[]]></wp:comment_author_email>
			<wp:comment_author_url>http://dtpscribus.wordpress.com/2010/03/19/booklet-printing/</wp:comment_author_url>
			<wp:comment_author_IP><![CDATA[66.135.48.201]]></wp:comment_author_IP>
			<wp:comment_date><![CDATA[2010-03-19 12:59:53]]></wp:comment_date>
			<wp:comment_date_gmt><![CDATA[2010-03-19 10:59:53]]></wp:comment_date_gmt>
			<wp:comment_content><![CDATA[[...] http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/tools/how-to-print-a-booklet-in-16-steps [...]]]></wp:comment_content>
			<wp:comment_approved><![CDATA[1]]></wp:comment_approved>
			<wp:comment_type><![CDATA[pingback]]></wp:comment_type>
			<wp:comment_parent>0</wp:comment_parent>
			<wp:comment_user_id>0</wp:comment_user_id>
		</wp:comment>
		<wp:comment>
			<wp:comment_id>45478</wp:comment_id>
			<wp:comment_author><![CDATA[Jose Matoco]]></wp:comment_author>
			<wp:comment_author_email><![CDATA[jlestrot@yahoo.com]]></wp:comment_author_email>
			<wp:comment_author_url></wp:comment_author_url>
			<wp:comment_author_IP><![CDATA[41.210.245.77]]></wp:comment_author_IP>
			<wp:comment_date><![CDATA[2010-05-03 18:20:41]]></wp:comment_date>
			<wp:comment_date_gmt><![CDATA[2010-05-03 16:20:41]]></wp:comment_date_gmt>
			<wp:comment_content><![CDATA[Ive been using word two pages on one paper. The problem is printing the recto verso. use pdf?how?]]></wp:comment_content>
			<wp:comment_approved><![CDATA[1]]></wp:comment_approved>
			<wp:comment_type><![CDATA[]]></wp:comment_type>
			<wp:comment_parent>0</wp:comment_parent>
			<wp:comment_user_id>0</wp:comment_user_id>
		</wp:comment>
		<wp:comment>
			<wp:comment_id>46087</wp:comment_id>
			<wp:comment_author><![CDATA[Stéphanie]]></wp:comment_author>
			<wp:comment_author_email><![CDATA[stephanie@stdin.fr]]></wp:comment_author_email>
			<wp:comment_author_url>http://stdin.fr</wp:comment_author_url>
			<wp:comment_author_IP><![CDATA[83.101.33.128]]></wp:comment_author_IP>
			<wp:comment_date><![CDATA[2010-10-15 09:30:24]]></wp:comment_date>
			<wp:comment_date_gmt><![CDATA[2010-10-15 07:30:24]]></wp:comment_date_gmt>
			<wp:comment_content><![CDATA[Maybe you can try PoDoFo impose. It is very simple of use and customizable with scripts.
Basic templates/plans are available here: http://oep-h.com/impose/

I guess you can tweak the A4 booklet plan there to suit your needs.]]></wp:comment_content>
			<wp:comment_approved><![CDATA[1]]></wp:comment_approved>
			<wp:comment_type><![CDATA[]]></wp:comment_type>
			<wp:comment_parent>0</wp:comment_parent>
			<wp:comment_user_id>0</wp:comment_user_id>
		</wp:comment>
		<wp:comment>
			<wp:comment_id>46074</wp:comment_id>
			<wp:comment_author><![CDATA[acreech]]></wp:comment_author>
			<wp:comment_author_email><![CDATA[acreech2330@gmail.com]]></wp:comment_author_email>
			<wp:comment_author_url></wp:comment_author_url>
			<wp:comment_author_IP><![CDATA[71.209.62.43]]></wp:comment_author_IP>
			<wp:comment_date><![CDATA[2010-10-11 02:08:55]]></wp:comment_date>
			<wp:comment_date_gmt><![CDATA[2010-10-11 00:08:55]]></wp:comment_date_gmt>
			<wp:comment_content><![CDATA[In linux you can save this bash script and run it. It will automatically complete the steps for you and output the finalized book. 

#!/bin/bash

# Check usage
if ($1 == "" || $2 == "" || $1 == "-h" || $1 == "--help") then
   echo " "
   echo " "
   echo "Usage: mkbook name_of_file Number_of_Pages"
   echo "     command: mkbook newbook.pdf 10"
   echo " "
 
fi 
pdftops -paper match $1 1.ps
psbook -s $2 1.ps 2.ps
psnup -2 -PA5 2.ps 3.ps
ps2pdf 3.ps $1_Final.pdf
rm -f  1.ps 2.ps 3.ps]]></wp:comment_content>
			<wp:comment_approved><![CDATA[1]]></wp:comment_approved>
			<wp:comment_type><![CDATA[]]></wp:comment_type>
			<wp:comment_parent>0</wp:comment_parent>
			<wp:comment_user_id>0</wp:comment_user_id>
		</wp:comment>
	</item>
	<item>
		<title>Printing Party 0.2 at Digitales</title>
		<link>http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/news/printing-party-02-at-digitales</link>
		<pubDate>Sun, 04 Jun 2006 13:39:08 +0000</pubDate>
		<dc:creator><![CDATA[Femke]]></dc:creator>
		<guid isPermaLink="false">http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=91</guid>
		<description></description>
		<content:encoded><![CDATA[<img src="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/_slingers.JPG" width="450" height="296" alt="slingers" title="slingers" />
At this years' edition of <a href="http://www.stormy-weather.be/digitales-2006/">Digitales</a>, we tested out a recipe for producing booklets, using texts with open licenses that are available on line. The recipe was  an excuse to discuss the relation between software and design, why it would be interesting for designers/publishers to consider using FLOSS tools and what the problems might be.
<!--more-->
After demonstrating the various steps in the process, here's me proudly showing the end result:

<a href="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/DSC00678.JPG"><img src="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/_DSC00678.JPG" width="450" height="337" alt="showing the result" title="showing the result"  /></a>

<a href="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/DSC00677.JPG"><img src="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/_DSC00677.JPG" width="450" height="337" alt="folding + stapling" title="folding + stapling"  /></a>

<a href="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/DSC00676.JPG"><img src="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/_DSC00676.JPG" width="450" height="337" alt="screen" title="screen"  /></a>

<a href="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/DSC00673.JPG"><img src="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/_DSC00673.JPG" width="450" height="337" alt="recipe" title="recipe"  /></a>]]></content:encoded>
		<excerpt:encoded><![CDATA[]]></excerpt:encoded>
		<wp:post_id>91</wp:post_id>
		<wp:post_date><![CDATA[2006-06-04 14:39:08]]></wp:post_date>
		<wp:post_date_gmt><![CDATA[2006-06-04 13:39:08]]></wp:post_date_gmt>
		<wp:comment_status><![CDATA[closed]]></wp:comment_status>
		<wp:ping_status><![CDATA[closed]]></wp:ping_status>
		<wp:post_name><![CDATA[printing-party-02-at-digitales]]></wp:post_name>
		<wp:status><![CDATA[publish]]></wp:status>
		<wp:post_parent>0</wp:post_parent>
		<wp:menu_order>0</wp:menu_order>
		<wp:post_type><![CDATA[post]]></wp:post_type>
		<wp:post_password><![CDATA[]]></wp:post_password>
		<wp:is_sticky>0</wp:is_sticky>
		<category domain="author" nicename="femke"><![CDATA[Femke]]></category>
		<category domain="category" nicename="news"><![CDATA[News]]></category>
		<category domain="post_tag" nicename="print-party"><![CDATA[Print Party]]></category>
		<category domain="post_tag" nicename="printing-publishing"><![CDATA[Printing + Publishing]]></category>
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	<item>
		<title>Exit Save-As-PDF for Microsoft users?</title>
		<link>http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/news/adobe-vs-microsoft</link>
		<pubDate>Tue, 06 Jun 2006 20:43:48 +0000</pubDate>
		<dc:creator><![CDATA[Femke]]></dc:creator>
		<guid isPermaLink="false">http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=93</guid>
		<description></description>
		<content:encoded><![CDATA[Microsoft has recently announced that their 2007 release of Office will not support the "save-as-PDF"-option anymore. This might be bad news for designers' favorite file-format. PDF could become rather exotic when Microsoft users decide en masse to "<a href="http://www.microsoft.com/whdc/xps/default.mspx">Save-As-XPS</a>" instead.

<!--more-->
Adobe inc. owns the patents for creating and reading PDF-files, by now one of the most widely used formats to exchange documents between users on different platforms and programmes. 
<blockquote>Adobe desires to promote the use of PDF for information interchange among diverse products and applications.
Accordingly, the following patents are licensed on a royalty-free, nonexclusive basis for the term of each patent and for the sole purpose of developing software that produces, consumes, and interprets PDF files that are compliant with the Specification
<small><a href="http://partners.adobe.com/public/developer/support/topic_legal_notices.html">http://partners.adobe.com/public/developer/support/topic_legal_notices.html</a></small></blockquote>
Adobe does not charge Scribus or Open Office for implementing PDF export in their packages, probably simply because these package do not make money off their product, and also: many day-to-day users might result in additional users of their high-end, and expensive products (Although apparently Adobe does not charge Apple for including this functionality?). 

Because Microsoft is making lots of money with Office, and the ability to do PDF export adds to the value of the package, Adobe has tried to make Microsoft (users) pay for this functionality already for a while. But in turn Microsoft simply decided to exclude the feature from their 2007 release. 
<blockquote>In that sense, I can see Adobe's side, even though I don't believe that any file format, simply a way of storing someone else's content, should be protected.
<small>(Gregory Pittman, Scribus mailinglist)</small>
</blockquote>
It looks like Adobe will have trouble forcing Microsoft to pay because of Anti-trust laws and exactly because of them not sueing any other free and or open source use of their tool. It does give Microsoft the perfect excuse though, to move on with their own XPS-standard after all.

<a href="http://www.theregister.co.uk/2006/06/05/microsoft_adobe_legal_spat/">http://www.theregister.co.uk/2006/06/05/microsoft_adobe_legal_spat/</a>
<a href="http://www.itwire.com.au/content/view/4509/53/">http://www.itwire.com.au/content/view/4509/53/</a>





]]></content:encoded>
		<excerpt:encoded><![CDATA[]]></excerpt:encoded>
		<wp:post_id>93</wp:post_id>
		<wp:post_date><![CDATA[2006-06-06 21:43:48]]></wp:post_date>
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		<wp:post_name><![CDATA[adobe-vs-microsoft]]></wp:post_name>
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	<item>
		<title>Two Times Collaborative Type</title>
		<link>http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/typo/two-times-collaborative-type</link>
		<pubDate>Tue, 06 Jun 2006 21:43:22 +0000</pubDate>
		<dc:creator><![CDATA[Femke]]></dc:creator>
		<guid isPermaLink="false">http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=94</guid>
		<description></description>
		<content:encoded><![CDATA[Two projects to submit fonts to, or find others to work with:

<strong>Typeforge</strong>
<a href="http://www.typeforge.net/cms/">http://www.typeforge.net</a>
<img src="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/_fontforge.jpg" width="350" height="177" alt="fontforge" title="fontforge" />

The <em>Typeforge</em> project was initiated by Portuguese type designer Pedro Amado, to create a platform for "open source collaborative type design". You are encouraged to share sketches, notes and ideas and work on collective projects. Good Fontforge tips + tricks too!

<strong>Open Font Library</strong>
<a href="http://openfontlibrary.org/">http://openfontlibrary.org/</a>

Based on the same principle as the <a href="http://openclipart.org/">Open Clip Art Library</a>, this project simply aims to bring together copyleft fonts. The project has just started, hence their collection is rather small, but such a repository is so much needed that I think it could grow quickly once people start adding.

]]></content:encoded>
		<excerpt:encoded><![CDATA[]]></excerpt:encoded>
		<wp:post_id>94</wp:post_id>
		<wp:post_date><![CDATA[2006-06-06 22:43:22]]></wp:post_date>
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	<item>
		<title>Watch this thread: Scribus mailinglist</title>
		<link>http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/tools/watch-this-thread</link>
		<pubDate>Sat, 17 Jun 2006 09:47:28 +0000</pubDate>
		<dc:creator><![CDATA[Femke]]></dc:creator>
		<guid isPermaLink="false">http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=95</guid>
		<description></description>
		<content:encoded><![CDATA[The Scribus mailinglist is a good place to start when you want to find out about printing, PDF, typography, color management and everything else related to open source publishing. Developers and other users discuss solutions to problems, but also give background information on why certain technical constraints exist, what licensing issues arise. The Scribus list seems exceptionally generous and has made it its policy to welcome questions on all levels.

Some older and newer threads to watch:
<!--more-->
<strong>Maintaining text with Scribus</strong>
Imagine you could connect your desktop publishing software to a weblog or other content management system? Collaboratively edit, and lay out the results in Scribus? Printing publications "on-demand" from your database? If it would be possible to import and export correct xml files, it would be not just large publishing houses that could do such operations. Gregory Pittman shows his python script frameslist.py, and explains what it is capable of and what not.
<a href="http://nashi.altmuehlnet.de/pipermail/scribus/2006-June/thread.html#18471">scribus/2006-June/thread.html#18471</a>

<strong>Scribus in the Art Lab</strong>
The use of open source tools in design education is not evident. Some feel it would deprive students of "real life" experience with "what the industry wants", others think it might make students more independent and self-learning. Tutors report on their motivations, methods and problems.
<a href="http://nashi.altmuehlnet.de/pipermail/scribus/2006-April/thread.html#16749">scribus/2006-April/thread.html#16749</a>

<strong>offtopic: microsoft must pay to adobe to include pdf exportcapability</strong>
Sometimes issues related to desk top publishing, but not necessarily to Scribus itself are brought up on the list. This is a good way to learn about the politics of (design-)software. Here is the thread on PDF export troubles between Microsoft and Adobe that I reported on last week:
<a href="http://nashi.altmuehlnet.de/pipermail/scribus/2006-June/thread.html#18348">scribus/2006-June/thread.html#18348</a>

<strong>CMYK Processing in open source</strong>
One of the issues that is hard to overcome, and returns time and time again on the list,  is the problem of CMYK export. This is not a Scribus issue in itself (color separation of graphic elements is no problem; it is a feature missing from image processing softwares), but is obviously frustrating when you are working with pictures in your document. The reasons why and possible (future) solutions are discussed here:
<a href="http://nashi.altmuehlnet.de/pipermail/scribus/2006-March/thread.html#16421">scribus/2006-March/thread.html#16421</a>]]></content:encoded>
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		<wp:post_id>95</wp:post_id>
		<wp:post_date><![CDATA[2006-06-17 10:47:28]]></wp:post_date>
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	<item>
		<title>Coming Soon: Print Party</title>
		<link>http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/news/printing-party-coming-soon</link>
		<pubDate>Wed, 21 Jun 2006 20:11:07 +0000</pubDate>
		<dc:creator><![CDATA[Femke]]></dc:creator>
		<guid isPermaLink="false">http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=98</guid>
		<description></description>
		<content:encoded><![CDATA[<img src="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/oneletter/_p_2.jpg" width="90" height="90" alt="P" title="P" /> <img src="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/oneletter/_p_3.jpg" width="90" height="90" alt="P" title="P" /> <img src="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/oneletter/_p_4.jpg" width="90" height="90" alt="P" title="P" /> <img src="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/oneletter/_p_5.jpg" width="90" height="90" alt="P" title="P" />
Friday July 7 16:00: <strong>Printing Party</strong> at <a href="http://www.quarantaine.biz">Quarantaine</a> (Brussels), with Scribus get-together and festive booklet-printing demo plus Open Cola cocktails. More details in a few days!

<small>Find more P s with open content license at:
<a href="http://www.flickr.com/search/?q=p+oneletter&m=tags&l=deriv">http://www.flickr.com/search/?q=p+oneletter&m=tags&l=deriv</a>
(Advanced search > Only search within Creative Commons-licensed photos)</small>]]></content:encoded>
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		<wp:post_date><![CDATA[2006-06-21 21:11:07]]></wp:post_date>
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			<wp:meta_value><![CDATA[a:2:{s:4:"time";i:1223529347;s:13:"related_posts";s:1272:"<ul class="related_post"><li><a href="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=547" title="Print, flip, and turn">Print, flip, and turn</a></li><li><a href="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=541" title="Quelques surprises polonaises">Quelques surprises polonaises</a></li><li><a href="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=534" title="Polish Print Party">Polish Print Party</a></li><li><a href="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=465" title="Print party: OSP Cover Band">Print party: OSP Cover Band</a></li><li><a href="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=443" title="OSP @ LGM 2008">OSP @ LGM 2008</a></li><li><a href="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=414" title="Quatre/Quarts: multi track Print Party ">Quatre/Quarts: multi track Print Party </a></li><li><a href="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=413" title="11 avril: Quatre/Quarts Print Party à l’ERG">11 avril: Quatre/Quarts Print Party à l’ERG</a></li><li><a href="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=407" title="OSP parle à l&#8217;ERG, round 2">OSP parle à l&#8217;ERG, round 2</a></li><li><a href="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=373" title="Free Operations / 1">Free Operations / 1</a></li><li><a href="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=343" title="Free Operations">Free Operations</a></li></ul>";}]]></wp:meta_value>
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		<title>Print Party! Join!</title>
		<link>http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/news/print-party-join</link>
		<pubDate>Fri, 23 Jun 2006 12:59:42 +0000</pubDate>
		<dc:creator><![CDATA[Harrisson]]></dc:creator>
		<guid isPermaLink="false">http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=99</guid>
		<description></description>
		<content:encoded><![CDATA[<strong>Rendez-vous le 7 juillet a <a href="http://www.quarantaine.biz">Quarantaine</a> pour une bonne Print Party!</strong> Ce sera a 16:00, et ca durera jusque peut-etre 20:00. Ca sera en français avec accent, (et bequilles en anglais et en néerlandais), mené par la Constant Printing + Cooking Team. 

<img id="image100" src="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/2006/06/ppfly.thumbnail.png" alt="ppfly.png" height="96" width="68" />

<em>Ou l'on apprendra comment mettre en page, imposer et imprimer un booklet avec des logiciels libres! </em>

On pensait que c'était de la Science-Fiction, mais une fois encore les experts se sont <strong>trompés</strong>: il est possible de faire du graphisme avec du Open Source. C'est en fait assez proche de la cuisine! 

<em>Si vous savez faire un gateau, vous saurez faire un livre</em>.

Pour accompagner cette performance, Kate Rich de Bristol fera des cocktails avec du <a href="http://sparror.cubecinema.com/cube/cola/">Cube Cola</a>.

Et <a href="http://www.constant.irisnet.be/~constant/champagne/">+Nurse+</a> nous jouera un mix inspiré sur platines ensoleillées.

Quarantaine, c'est 43 rue Lesbroussart, 1050 IXL, Bruxelles, Belgique <a href="http://www.quarantaine.biz">www.quarantaine.biz.</a> 
On ne saurait trop vous conseiller de visiter!]]></content:encoded>
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		<wp:post_id>99</wp:post_id>
		<wp:post_date><![CDATA[2006-06-23 13:59:42]]></wp:post_date>
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	<item>
		<title>C&#039;est parti</title>
		<link>http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/news/cest-parti</link>
		<pubDate>Mon, 10 Jul 2006 21:50:08 +0000</pubDate>
		<dc:creator><![CDATA[Femke]]></dc:creator>
		<guid isPermaLink="false">http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=101</guid>
		<description></description>
		<content:encoded><![CDATA[Souvenirs / Greetings from the Print Party!

<img src="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/_DSC08701.JPG" width="220" height="165" alt="Cube Cola" title="Cube Cola" /> <img src="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/_DSC08707.JPG" width="220" height="165" alt="+nurse+" title="+nurse+" /> <img src="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/_DSC08715.JPG" width="220" height="165" alt="participate" title="participate" /> <img src="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/_DSC08651.JPG" width="220" height="165" alt="yes, harrisson" title="yes, harrisson" /> <img src="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/_DSC08678.JPG" width="220" height="165" alt="everything you see I owe to..." title="everything you see I owe to..." /> <img src="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/_DSC08720.JPG" width="220" height="165" alt="L'agrapheuse" title="L'agrapheuse" />]]></content:encoded>
		<excerpt:encoded><![CDATA[]]></excerpt:encoded>
		<wp:post_id>101</wp:post_id>
		<wp:post_date><![CDATA[2006-07-10 22:50:08]]></wp:post_date>
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		<category domain="author" nicename="femke"><![CDATA[Femke]]></category>
		<category domain="category" nicename="news"><![CDATA[News]]></category>
		<category domain="post_tag" nicename="print-party"><![CDATA[Print Party]]></category>
		<category domain="post_tag" nicename="printing-publishing"><![CDATA[Printing + Publishing]]></category>
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			<wp:meta_value><![CDATA[7787]]></wp:meta_value>
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		<title>Freie Schriften im Portrait</title>
		<link>http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/typo/freie-schriften-im-portrait</link>
		<pubDate>Sat, 15 Jul 2006 14:00:07 +0000</pubDate>
		<dc:creator><![CDATA[Femke]]></dc:creator>
		<guid isPermaLink="false">http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=102</guid>
		<description></description>
		<content:encoded><![CDATA[For those who read German, type designer and -critic Gerrit van Aaken published quite a few well-researched essays on familiar open source typefaces such as <strong>Gentium</strong> and <strong>Vera</strong> plus a few surprises such as <strong>Kaffeesatz</strong> and <strong>Union</strong> (not under an open licence, but distributed by the Danish government for use in documents relating to Danish culture. Interesting concept...)

<a href="http://praegnanz.de/essays/">http://praegnanz.de/essays</a>]]></content:encoded>
		<excerpt:encoded><![CDATA[]]></excerpt:encoded>
		<wp:post_id>102</wp:post_id>
		<wp:post_date><![CDATA[2006-07-15 15:00:07]]></wp:post_date>
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		<wp:post_name><![CDATA[freie-schriften-im-portrait]]></wp:post_name>
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		<category domain="author" nicename="femke"><![CDATA[Femke]]></category>
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	<item>
		<title>Kaffeesatz + Tagesschrift</title>
		<link>http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/typo/kaffeesatz-tagesschrift</link>
		<pubDate>Sat, 15 Jul 2006 14:22:13 +0000</pubDate>
		<dc:creator><![CDATA[Femke]]></dc:creator>
		<guid isPermaLink="false">http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=103</guid>
		<description></description>
		<content:encoded><![CDATA[<a href="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/kaffeesatz.gif"><img title="kaffeesatz font" src="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/_kaffeesatz.gif" alt="kaffeesatz font" width="450" height="346" /></a>
<strong>Kaffeeschrift</strong> was developed by Jan Gerner from Dresden for use in menus etc., hence the monospaced figures. It works well for titles and headers, but was not designed for longer texts (though it holds out surprisingly well)

Download and try out here: <a href="http://www.yanone.de/typedesign/kaffeesatz/">http://www.yanone.de/typedesign/kaffeesatz/</a>

<a href="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/tagesschrift.gif"><img title="tagesschrift font" src="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/_tagesschrift.gif" alt="tagesschrift font" width="450" height="199" /></a>
Tagesschrift is scanned and vectoralized handwriting; very nice atmosphere and a more than useful addition to the often rather dull set of open fonts available.

Download and try out here: <a href="http://www.yanone.de/typedesign/tagesschrift/">http://www.yanone.de/typedesign/tagesschrift/</a>

Both fonts are available under a not too restrictive Creative Commons License; you can copy, distribute, display, and perform (now that's a nice idea! -&gt; I think this would mean you can embed them in documents?) the fonts; make derivative versions and also make commercial use of them. If you distribute (the same or altered versions), you are obliged to attribute Jan Gerner / http://www.yanone.de]]></content:encoded>
		<excerpt:encoded><![CDATA[]]></excerpt:encoded>
		<wp:post_id>103</wp:post_id>
		<wp:post_date><![CDATA[2006-07-15 15:22:13]]></wp:post_date>
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			<wp:comment_id>80</wp:comment_id>
			<wp:comment_author><![CDATA[karl]]></wp:comment_author>
			<wp:comment_author_email><![CDATA[karl.badde@gmx.net]]></wp:comment_author_email>
			<wp:comment_author_url>http://typolis.net/ninedaysoff</wp:comment_author_url>
			<wp:comment_author_IP><![CDATA[212.226.162.61]]></wp:comment_author_IP>
			<wp:comment_date><![CDATA[2006-07-19 09:12:30]]></wp:comment_date>
			<wp:comment_date_gmt><![CDATA[2006-07-19 08:12:30]]></wp:comment_date_gmt>
			<wp:comment_content><![CDATA[Hey there, So how do you make your open sourced open type fonts?!
Do you have any experience with that!? Any experience with open source programs?

I'm looking for good ones helping me in typedesign so please hit me back ;)]]></wp:comment_content>
			<wp:comment_approved><![CDATA[1]]></wp:comment_approved>
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		<wp:comment>
			<wp:comment_id>98</wp:comment_id>
			<wp:comment_author><![CDATA[harrisson]]></wp:comment_author>
			<wp:comment_author_email><![CDATA[une.ombre@gmail.com]]></wp:comment_author_email>
			<wp:comment_author_url></wp:comment_author_url>
			<wp:comment_author_IP><![CDATA[87.65.152.206]]></wp:comment_author_IP>
			<wp:comment_date><![CDATA[2006-07-25 13:45:26]]></wp:comment_date>
			<wp:comment_date_gmt><![CDATA[2006-07-25 12:45:26]]></wp:comment_date_gmt>
			<wp:comment_content><![CDATA[Hi Karl. 

Yes we're playing a bit in the field of Fonts and Open Source Software... 
For font design and encoding, we would strongly recommend FontForge software. It runs under Linux and MacOSX (X11) platforms. It is one of the best software existing in the Open Source space, complete and professionnal. All the documentation is available online. If you're used to Fontlab, this is very similar.
http://fontforge.sourceforge.net/

For encodings and unicodes, and actually everything, there is the excellent "Fonts &amp; Encodings" from O'reilly. Only in french for the moment, an english translation is estimated for November of this year. A bit of patience!
http://www.oreilly.com/catalog/fontsencodings/index.html

Keep us informed about your experiences with open source fonts and softwares. And hit us back!]]></wp:comment_content>
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	</item>
	<item>
		<title>If the design thinking is correct, the tools should be irrelevant</title>
		<link>http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/education/if-the-design-thinking-is-correct-the-tools-should-be-irrelevant</link>
		<pubDate>Sun, 06 Aug 2006 13:56:06 +0000</pubDate>
		<dc:creator><![CDATA[Femke]]></dc:creator>
		<guid isPermaLink="false">http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=104</guid>
		<description></description>
		<content:encoded><![CDATA[<em>Interview with Pedro Amado (TypeForge)</em>

(Type) designer <strong>Pedro Amado</strong> is amongst many other things initiator of <a href="http://www.typeforge.net/">TypeForge</a>, a website dedicated to the development of 'collaborative type' with open source tools. While working as design technician at <a href="http://www.fba.up.pt" title="Faculdade de Belas Artes da Universidade do Porto (FBAUP)">FBAUP</a>, he is about to finish a MA with a paper on collaborative methods for the creation of art and design projects. When I e-mailed him about open font design and how he sees that developing, he responded with a list of useful links, but also with: 
<blockquote>"Developing design teaching based on open source is one of my goals, because I think that is the future of education." </blockquote>
This text is based on the conversation about design, teaching and software that followed.

<!--more-->______________________________________

<em>You told me you are employed as 'design technician'... what does that mean?</em>

It means that I provide assistance to teachers and students in the Design Department. I implemented scanning/printing facilities for example, and currently I develop and give workshops on Digital Technologies – software is a BIG issue for me right now!

Linux and Open Source Software are slowly entering the design spaces of our school. For me it has been a 'battle' to find space for these tools. I mean - we could migrate completely to OSS tools, but it's a slow progress. Mainly because people (students) need (and want) to be trained in the same commercial applications as the ones they will encounter in their professional life.

<em>How did Linux enter the design lab? How did that start?</em>

It started with a personal curiosity, but also for economical reasons. Our school can't afford to acquire all the software licenses we'd like. For example, we can't justify to pay approx. 100 x 10 € licenses, just to implement the educational version of Fontlab on some of our computers; especially because this package is  only used by a part of our second year design students. You can image what the total budget will be with all the other needs... 

I personally believe that we can find everything we need on the web. It's a matter of searching long enough! So this is how I was very happy to find Fontforge. An open source tool that is solid enough to use in education and can produce (as far as I have been able to test) almost professional results in font development.

At first I couldn't grasp how to use it under <a href="http://x.cygwin.com" title="Cygwin/X is a port of the X Window System to the Microsoft Windows">X</a> on Windows, so one day I set out to try and do it on Linux... and one thing lead to another...

<em>What got you into using OSS? Was it all one thing leading to another?</em>

Uau... can't remember... I believe it had to do with my first experiences on line; I don't think I knew the concept before 2000. I mean I've started using the web (IRC and basic browsing) in 1999, but I think it had to do with the search of newer and better tools...

<em>I think I also started to get into it around that time. But I think I was more interested in copyleft though, than in software.</em>

Oh... (blush) not me... I got into it definitely for the '<a href="http://www.gnu.org/philosophy/free-sw.htm" title="Free software is a matter of liberty, not price. To understand the concept, you should think of free as in free speech, not as in 'free beer.">free beer</a>' aspect! 

By 2004 I started using DTP applications on Linux (still in my own time) and began to think that these tools could be used in an educational context, if not professionally. In the beginning of 2006 I presented a study to the coordinator of the Design Department at FBAUP, in which I proposed to start implementing Open Source tools as an alternative to the tools we were missing. <a href="http://www.blender.org/ ">Blender</a> for 3D animation, <a href="http://fontforge.sourceforge.net/">FontForge</a> for type design, <a href="http://processing.org/ ">Processing</a> for interactive/graphic programming and others as a complement to proprietary packages: The Gimp, Scribus and Inkscape to name the most important ones.

I ran into some technical problems that I hope will be sorted out soon; one of the strategies is to run these software packages on a migration basis - as the older computers in our lab won't be able to run MacOS 10.4+, we'll start converting them to Linux.

<em>I wanted to ask you about the relation between software and design. To me, economy, working process, but also aesthetics are a product of software, and at the same time software itself is shaped through use. I think the borders between software and design are not so strictly drawn. </em>

It's funny you put things in that perspective. I couldn't agree more. Nevertheless I think that design thinking prevails (or it should) as it must come first when approaching problems. If the design thinking is correct, the tools used should be irrelevant. I say 'should' because in a perfect environment we could work within a team where all tools (software/hardware) are mastered. Rarely this happens, so much of our design thinking is still influenced by what we can actually produce.

<em>Do you mean to say that “what we can think is influenced by what we can make”? This would work for me! But often when tools are mastered, they disappear in the background and in my opinion that can become a problem.</em> 

I'm not sure if I follow your point. I agree with "the border between design and software is not so strict" nevertheless, I don't agree with "economy, process and aesthetics are a product of software". As you've come to say what we think is influenced by what we can make... this is an outside observation...

<blockquote>A technique is produced inside a culture, therefore one's society is conditioned by it's techniques. Conditioned, not determined" (LÉVY, 2000)
</blockquote>

Design, like economics and software, is a product of culture. Or is it the other way around? The fact is that we can't really tell what comes first. Culture is defined by and defines technology. Therefore it's more or less simple to accept that software determines (and is determined) by it's use. This is an intricate process... it kind of goes roundabout on itself...

<em>And where does design fit in in your opinion? Or more precisely: designers? </em>

Design is a cultural aspect. Therefore it does not escape this logic. Using a practical standpoint: Design is a product of economics and technology. Nevertheless the best design practices (or at least the one's that have endured the test of time) and the most renowned designers are the one's that can escape the the economic and technological boundaries. 

The best design practices are the ones that are not products of economics and technology... they are kind of approaching a universal design status (if one exists). of course... it's very theoretical, and optimistic... but it should be like this... otherwise we'll stop looking for better or newer solutions, and we'll stop pushing boundaries and design as technology and other areas will stagnate. 

On the other hand, there is a special 'school' of thought manifested through some of the Portuguese Design Association members, saying that the design process should lead the process of technological development. Henrique Cayate (I think it was in November last year) said that "design should lead the way to economy and technology in society." I think this is a bit far fetched...
<br /><br /><br /><em>Do you think software defines form and/or content? How is software related to design processes?</em>

I think these are the essential questions related to the use of OSS. Can we think about what we can make without thinking about process? I believe that in design processes, as in design teaching, concepts should be separated from techniques or software as much as possible.
<br /><br /><br /><em>To me, exactly because techniques and software are intertwined, software matters and should offer space for thinking (software should therefore not be separated from design).

You could also say: design becomes exceptionally strong when it makes use of its context, and responds to it in an intelligent way. Or maybe I did not understand what you meant by being "a product of". To me that is not necessarily a negative point.</em>

Well... yes... that could be a definition of good design, I guess. 

I think that as a cultural produce, techniques can't determine society. It can and will influence it, but at the same time it will also just happen. When we talk about Design and Software I see the same principle reflected. Design being the "culture" or society and software being the tools or techniques that are developed to be used by designers. So this is much the same as "which came first? The chicken, or the egg?" Looking at it from a designers (not a software developers) point of view, the tools we use will always condition our output. Nevertheless I think it's our role as users to push tools further and let developers know what we want to do with them. Whether we do animation on Photoshop, or print graphics on Flash that's our responsibility. We have to use our tools in a responsible way. Knowing that the use we make of them will eventually come back at us. It's a kind of responsible feedback.
<br /><br /><br /><em>Using Linux in a design environment is not an obvious choice. Most designers are practically married to their Adobe Suite. How come it is entering your school after all? </em>

Very slowly! Linux is finally becoming valuable for Design/DTP area as it has been for long on the Internet/Web and programming areas. But you can't expect The Gimp to surpass Photoshop. At least not in the next few years. And this is the reality. If we can, we must train our students to use the best tools available. Ideally all tools available, so they won't have problems when faced with a tool professionally.

The big question is still, how we besides teaching students theory and design processes (with the help of free tools), help them to become professionals. We also have to teach them how to survive a professional relationship with professional tools like the Adobe Suite. As I am certain that Linux and OSS (or FLOSS) will be part of education’s future, I am certain of it’s coexistence along side with commercial software like Adobe’s. It’s only a matter of time. Being certain of this, the essential question is: How will we manage to work parallel in both commercial and free worlds?

<em>Do you think it is at all possible to 'survive' on other tools than the ones Adobe offers? </em>

well... I seem not to be able to dedicate myself entirely to these new tools... 

To depend solely on OSS tools... I think that is not possible, at least not at this moment. But now is the time to take these OSS tools and start to teach with them. They must be implemented in our schools. I am certain that sooner or later this will be common practice throughout European schools.

<em>Can you explain a bit more, what you mean by 'real world'?</em>

Being a professional graphic designer is what we call the 'real world' in our school. I mean, having to work full time doing illustration, corporate identity, graphic design etc. to make a living - deliver on time to clients and make a profit to pay the bills by the end of the month!

<em>Do you think OSS can/should be taught differently? It seems self-teaching is built in to these tools and the community around it. It means you learn to teach others in fact ... that you actually have to leave the concept of 'mastering' behind? </em>

I agree. The great thing about Linux is precisely that - as it is developed by users and for users - it is developing a sense of community around it, a sense of "given enough eyeballs, someone will figure it out"

<em>Well, that does not always work, but most of the time... </em>

I believe that using open source tools is perfect to teach, especially first year students. Almost no one really understands what the commands behind the menus of Photoshop mean, at least not the people I've seen in my workshops. I guess The Gimp won't resolve this matter, but it will help them think about what they are doing to digital images. Especially when they have to use unfamiliar software.

You first have to teach the design process and then the tool can be taught correctly, otherwise you’ll just be teaching habits or tricks. As I said before, as long as design prevails and not the tool/technique, and you teach the concepts behind the tools in the right way, people will adapt seamlessly to new tools, and the interface will become invisible!

<em>Do you think this means you will need to restructure the curriculum? I imagine a class in bugreporting... or getting help on line... </em>

mmhh... that could be interesting. I've never thought about it in that way. I've always seen bugreporting and other community driven activities as part of the individual aspect of working with these tools... but basically you are suggesting to implement an 'open source civic behavior class' or something like that?

<em>Ehm... Yes! I think you need to learn that you own your tools, meaning you need to take care of them (ie: if something does not work, report) but at the same time you can open them up and get under the hood... change something small or something big. You also need to learn that you can expect to get help from other people than your tutor... and that you can teach someone else. </em>

The aspect of taking responsibility, this has to be cultivated - a responsible use of these tools. About changing things under the hood... well this I think it will be more difficult. I think there is barely space to educate people to hack their own tools let alone getting under the hood and modifying them.

But you are right that under the OSS communication model, the peer review model of analysis, communication is getting less and less hierarchical. You don't have to be an expert to develop new or powerful tools or other things... A peer-review model assumes that you just need to be clever and willing to work with others. As long as you treat your collaborators as peers, whether or not they are more or less advanced than you, this will motivate them to work harder. You should not disregard their suggestions and reward them with the implementations (or critics) of their work.

<em>How does that model become a reality in teaching? How can you practice this?</em>

Well... for example use public communication/distribution platforms (like an expanded web forum) inside school, or available on the Internet; blog updates and suggestions constantly; keep a repository of files; encourage the use of real time communication technologies... as you might have noticed is almost the formula used in e-learning solutions.

<em>And also often an argument for cutting down on teaching hours.</em>

That actually is and isn't true. You can and will (almost certainly) have less and less traditional classes, but if the teachers and tutors are dedicated, they will be more available than ever! This will mean that students and teachers will be working together in a more informal relationship. But it can also provoke an invasion of the personal space of teachers...

<em>It is hard to put a border when you are that much involved. I am just thinking how you could use the community around Open Source Software to help out. I mean... if the on line teaching tools would be open to others outside the school too, this would be the advantage. It would also mean that as a school, you contribute to the public domain with your classes and courses.</em>

That is another question. I think schools should contribute to public domain knowledge. Right now I am not sharing any of the knowledge about implementing OSS on a school like ours with the community. But if all goes well I'll have this working by December 2006. I'm working on a website where I can post the handbooks for workshops and other useful resources.

<em>I am really curious about your experiences. However convinced I am of the necessity to do it, I don't think it is easy to open education up to the public, especially not for undergraduate education.</em>

I do have my doubts too. If you look at it on a commercial perspective, students are paying for their education... should we share the same content to everyone? Will other people explore these resources in a wrong way? Will it really contribute to the rest of the community? What about profit? Can we afford to give this knowledge away for free, I mean, as a school this is almost our only source of income? Will the prestige gained, be worth the possible loss? These are important questions that I need to think more about.

<em>OK, I will be back with you in 6 month to find out more!</em>

<em>My last question... why would you invest time and energy in OSS when you think good designers should escape economical and technological boundaries?</em>

If we invest energy on OSS tools now, we'll have the advantage of already being savvy by the time they become widely accepted. The worst case scenario would be that you've wasted time perfecting your skills or learned a new tool that didn't become a standard... How many times have we done this already in our life? In any way, we need to learn concepts behind the tools, learn new and different tools, even unnecessary ones in order to broaden our knowledge base – this will eventually help us think 'out of the box' and hopefully push boundaries further [not so much as escaping them].

For me OSS and its movement have reached a maturity level that can prove it's own worth in society. Just see Firefox - when it reached general user acceptance level (aka 'project maturity' or 'development state'), they started to compete directly with MS Internet Explorer. This will happen with the rest (at least that's what I believe). It's a matter of quality and doing the correct broadcast to the general public. 

Linux started almost as a personal project and now it’s a powerhouse in programming or web environments. Maybe because these are areas that require constant software and hardware attention it became an obvious and successful choice. People just modified it as they needed it done. Couldn’t this be done as effectively (or better) with commercial solutions? Of course. But could people develop personalized solutions to specific problems in their own time frame? Probably not…

But it means that the people involved are, or can resource to, computer experts. What about the application of these ideas to other areas? The justice department of the Portuguese government (Ministério da Justiça) is for example currently undergoing a massive informatics (as in the tools used) change – they are slowly migrating their working platform to an Open Source Linux distribution – Caixa Mágica (although it’s maintained and given assistance by a commercial enterprise by the same name). By doing this, they’ll cut costs dramatically and will still be able to work with equivalent productivity (one hopes: better!). The other example is well known. The Spanish region of Estremadura looked for a way to cut costs on the implementation of information technologies in their school system and developed their own Linux Distro called Linex – it aggregates the software bundle they need, and best of all has been developed and constantly tweaked by them.

Now Linux is becoming more accessible for users without technical training, and is in a WYSIWYG state of development, I really believe we should start using it seriously so we can try and test it and learn how we can use in in our everyday life (for me this process has already started…).

People aren't stupid. They're just 'change resistant'. One of the aspects I think that will get peoples' attention will be that a 'free beer' is as good as a commercial one.]]></content:encoded>
		<excerpt:encoded><![CDATA[]]></excerpt:encoded>
		<wp:post_id>104</wp:post_id>
		<wp:post_date><![CDATA[2006-08-06 14:56:06]]></wp:post_date>
		<wp:post_date_gmt><![CDATA[2006-08-06 13:56:06]]></wp:post_date_gmt>
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			<wp:comment_id>352</wp:comment_id>
			<wp:comment_author><![CDATA[Manuela Amado]]></wp:comment_author>
			<wp:comment_author_email><![CDATA[mmamado@fc.up.pt]]></wp:comment_author_email>
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			<wp:comment_author_IP><![CDATA[193.137.24.32]]></wp:comment_author_IP>
			<wp:comment_date><![CDATA[2006-09-12 18:01:12]]></wp:comment_date>
			<wp:comment_date_gmt><![CDATA[2006-09-12 17:01:12]]></wp:comment_date_gmt>
			<wp:comment_content><![CDATA[Então o Linux já devia ser coloado nos computadores como o MS-Dos?]]></wp:comment_content>
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			<wp:comment_id>48002</wp:comment_id>
			<wp:comment_author><![CDATA[Future Tools &raquo; Blog Archive &raquo; Back to the future]]></wp:comment_author>
			<wp:comment_author_email><![CDATA[]]></wp:comment_author_email>
			<wp:comment_author_url>http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/lgru/blog/?p=1</wp:comment_author_url>
			<wp:comment_author_IP><![CDATA[79.99.202.57]]></wp:comment_author_IP>
			<wp:comment_date><![CDATA[2011-07-08 17:37:55]]></wp:comment_date>
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			<wp:comment_content><![CDATA[[...] If the design thinking is correct, the tools should be irrelevant. Interview with Pedro Amado, TypeForge (2006) link [...]]]></wp:comment_content>
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	</item>
	<item>
		<title>You need to copy to understand</title>
		<link>http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/typo/you-need-to-copy-to-understand</link>
		<pubDate>Sun, 06 Aug 2006 14:43:28 +0000</pubDate>
		<dc:creator><![CDATA[Femke]]></dc:creator>
		<guid isPermaLink="false">http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=105</guid>
		<description></description>
		<content:encoded><![CDATA[<em>Interview with Harrisson</em>

One of the co-conspirators in this open source adventure is a Brussels <em>graphiste</em> going under the name <strong>Harrisson</strong>. His interest in open source software flows with the culture of exchange that keeps the off centre music scene alive, as well as with the humanist tradition persistingly present in contemporary typography.
Harrissons' visual frame of reference is eclectic and vibrant, including modernist giants, vernacular design, local typographic culture, classic painting, drawing and graffiti. Too much food for one conversation.

<!--more-->_____________________________


<em>You could say that "A typeface is entirely derivative", but others argue, that maybe the alphabet is, but not the interpretations of it.</em>

The main point of typography and ownership today is that there is a blurred border between language and letters. So: now you can own the 'shape' of a letter. Traditionally, the way typographers made a living was by buying (more or less expensive) lead fonts, and with this tool they printed books and got paid for that. They got paid for the typesetting, not for the type. That was the work of the foundries. Today, thanks to the digital tools, you can easily switch between type design, type setting and graphic design.


<em>What about the idea that fonts might be the most 'pirated' digital object possible? Copying is much more difficult when you've got lead type to handle!
</em>

Yes, digitalisation changed the rules. Just as mp3 changed the philosophy of music. But in typography, there is a strange confrontation between this flux of copied information, piracy and old rules of ownership from the past.


<em>Do you think the culture of sharing fonts changed? Or: the culture of distributing them? If you look at most licenses for fonts, they are extremely restrictive. Even 99% of Free Fonts do not allow derivative works.</em>

<a href="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/font_message2.jpg"><img src="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/_font_message2.jpg" width="300" height="183" alt="avertissement" title="avertissement"  /></a>
<small>Warning message when attempting to embed a font in InDesign</small>

The public good culture is paradoxally not often there. Or at least the economical model of living with public good idea is not very developed. While I think typography, historically, is always seen as a way to share knowledge. Humanist stuff. 

<blockquote>The art and craft of typeface design is currently headed for extinction due to the illegal proliferation of font software, piracy, and general disregard for proper licensing etiquette.

<small><a href="http://redesign.emigre.com/FAQ.php">http://redesign.emigre.com/FAQ.php</a></small></blockquote>

Emigré... Did they not live from the copyrights of fonts?!


<em>You are right. They are like a commercial record company. Can you imagine what would happen if you would open up the typographic trade - to 'open source' this economy? Stop chasing piracy and allow users to embed, study, copy, modify and redistribute typefaces?
</em>

Well we are not that far from this in fact. Every designer has at least 500 fonts on their computer, not licenced, but copied because it would be impossible to pay for! 


<em>Even the distribution model of fonts is very peer-to-peer as well. The reality might come close, but font licenses tell a different story.</em>

<blockquote>I believe that we live in an era where anything that can be expressed as bits will be. I believe that bits exist to be copied. Therefore, I believe that any business-model that depends on your bits not being copied is just dumb, and that lawmakers who try to prop these up are like governments that sink fortunes into protecting people who insist on living on the sides of active volcanoes.

<small>Cory Doctorow in <a href="http://craphound.com/bio.php">http://craphound.com/bio.php</a></small>
</blockquote>


<em>I am not saying all fonts should be open, but it is just that it would be interesting when type designers were testing and experimenting with other ways of developing and distributing type, with another economy.</em>

Yes, but fonts have a much more reduced user community than music or bookpublishing, so old rules stay. 


<em>Is that it? I am surprised to see that almost all typographers and foundries take the 'piracy is a crime' side on this issue. While typographers are early and enthusiastic adapters of computer technology, they have not taken much from the collaborative culture that  came with it.</em>

This is the 'tradition' typography inherited. Typography was one of the first laboratories for fractioning work for efficiency. It was one of the first modern industries, and has developed a really deep culture where it is not easy to set doubts in. 500 years of tradition and only 20 years of computers.The complexity comes from the fact it is influenced by a multiple series of elements, from history and tradition to the latest technologies. But it is always related to an economic production system, so property and 'secrets-of-the-trade' have a big influence on it.


<em>I think it is important to remember how the current culture of (not) sharing fonts is linked to its history. But books have been made for quite a while too.</em>

Open source systems may be not so much influencing distribution, licenses and economic models in typography, but can set original questions to this problematic of digital type. Old tools and histories are not reliable anymore.


<em>Yes. with networked software it is rather obvious that it is useful to work together. I try to understand how this works with respect to making a font. Would that work?
</em>

Collaborative type is extremely important now, I think. The globalisation of computer systems sets the language of typography in a new dimension. We use computers in Belgium and in China. Same hardware. But language is the problem! A French typographer might not be the best person to define a Vietnamese font. Collaborativity is necessary! <a href="http://www.speculoos.com">Pierre Huyghebaert </a>told me he once designed an Arabic font when he was in Lebanon. For him, the font was legible, but nobody there was able to read it.


<em>But how would you collaborate than? I mean... what would be the reason for a French typographer to collaborate with one from China? What would that bring? I'm imagining some kind of hybrid result... kind of interesting.</em>

Again, sharing. We all have the idea that English is the modern Latin, and if we are not careful the future of computers will result in a language reductionism.


<em>What interest me in open source, is the potential for 'biodiversity'.</em>

I partially agree, and the open source idea contradicts the reductionist approach by giving more importance to local knowledge. A collaboration between an Arabic typographer and a French one can be to work on tools that allow both languages to co-exist. Latex permits that, for example. Not QuarkXpress! 


<em>Where does your interest in typography actually come from?</em>

I think I first looked at comic books, and then started doodling in the margins of schoolbooks. As a teenager, I used to reproduce film titles such as Aliens, Terminator or other sci-fi high-octane typographic titles.

<a href="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/terminator.jpg"><img src="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/_terminator.jpg" width="300" height="31" alt="terminator" title="terminator"  /></a>

Basically, I'm a forger! In writing, you need to copy to understand. Thats an old necessity.
If you use a typeface, you express something. You're putting drawings of letters next to each other to compose a word/text. A drawing is always emotionally charged, which gives color (or taste) to the message. You need to know what's inside a font to know what it expresses.


<em>How do you find out what's inside?</em>

By reproducing letters, and using them. A Gill Sans does not have the same emotional load as a Bodoni. To understand a font is complicated, because it refers to almost every field in culture. The banners behind G.W. Bush communicate more than just 'Mission Accomplished'. Typefaces carry a 'meta language'.

<a href="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/compassion_bush.jpg"><img src="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/_compassion_bush.jpg" width="300" height="88" alt="compassion" title="compassion"  /></a>

<small>http://voice.aiga.org/content.cfm?ContentAlias=%5Fgetfullarticle&aid=2131398</small>

<em>It is truly embedded content</em>

Exactly!

It is still very difficult to bridge the gap between personal emotions and programming a font. Moreover, there are different approaches, from stroke design to software that generates fonts. And typography is standardisation.

The first digital fonts are drawn fixed shapes, letter by letter, 'outstrokes'. But there is another approach where the letters are traced by the computer. It needs software to be generated. In Autocad, letters are 'innerstroke' that can vary of weight. Letterrors' Beowolf is also an example of that kind of approach.

<img src="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/beowolf.jpg" width="260" height="75" alt="beowolf" title="beowolf" />

<small><a href="http://www.letterror.com/foundry/beowolf/">http://www.letterror.com/foundry/beowolf/</a></small>

It's a very interesting way to work, but the font depends on the platform it goes with. Beowolf only works on OS9. It also set the question of copyright very far. It's a case study in itself.


<em>So it means, the font is software in fact?</em>

Yes, but the inter-dependance between font and operating systems is very strong, contrary to a fixed format such as TrueType. For printed matter, this is much more complicated to achieve. There are in-between formats, such as Multiple Master Technology for example. It basically means, that you have 2 shapes for 1 glyph, and you can set an 'alternative' shape between the 2 shapes. At Adobe they still do not understand why it was (and still is) a failure... 

<a href="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/MM.jpg"><img src="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/_MM.jpg" width="250" height="198" alt="multiple master" title="multiple master"  /></a>

<em>I really like this idea... to have more than one master. Imagine you own one master and I own the other and than we adjust and tweak from different sides. That would be real collaborative type! Could 'multiple' mean more than one you think?
</em>

It is a bit more complicated than drawing a simple font in Fontographer or Fontforge. Pierre told me that MM feature is still available in Adobe Illustrator, but that it is used very seldomly. Multiple Master fonts are also a bit complicated to use. I think there were a lot of bugs first, and then you need to be a skilled designer to give these fonts a nice render. I never heard of an alternative use of it, with drawing or so. In the end it was probably never a success because of the software dependency. 


<em>While I always thought of fonts as extremely cross media. Do you remember which classic font was basically the average between many well-known fonts? Frutiger?</em>

Fonts are Culture Capsules! It was Adrian Frutiger. But he wasn't the only one to try... It was a research for the Univers font I think. Here again we meet this paradox of typography: a standardisation of language generating cultural complexity.

<a href="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/A.jpg"><img src="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/_A.jpg" width="144" height="150" alt="a" title="a"  /></a>

<small>Sketch for Univers by Adrian Frutiger</small>

<em>Univers. That makes sense. Amazing to see those examples together. It seems digital typography got stuck at some point, and I think some of the ideas and practices that are current in open source could help break out of it.</em>

Yes of course. And it is almost virgin space.


<em>In 2003 the Danish government released Union, a font that could be freely used for publications concerning Danish culture. I find this an intrigueing idea, that a font could be seen as some kind of 'public good'.</em>

<a href="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/union.png"><img src="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/_union.png" width="300" height="89" alt="union" title="union"  /></a>

<small>http://www.identifont.com/show?BW8</small>

I am convinced that knowledge needs to be open... (speaking as the son of a teacher here!). One medium for knowledge is language and its atoms are letters.


<em>But if information wants to be free, does that mean that design needs to be free too? Is there information possible without design?</em>

This is why I like books. Because it's a mix between information and beauty - or can be. Pfff, there is nothing without design... It is like is there something without language, no?]]></content:encoded>
		<excerpt:encoded><![CDATA[]]></excerpt:encoded>
		<wp:post_id>105</wp:post_id>
		<wp:post_date><![CDATA[2006-08-06 15:43:28]]></wp:post_date>
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		<wp:comment>
			<wp:comment_id>34279</wp:comment_id>
			<wp:comment_author><![CDATA[.:: DiseñoLibre.ORG ::. &raquo; LGM 2008: Open Source Publishing]]></wp:comment_author>
			<wp:comment_author_email><![CDATA[]]></wp:comment_author_email>
			<wp:comment_author_url>http://www.disenolibre.org/?p=52</wp:comment_author_url>
			<wp:comment_author_IP><![CDATA[69.61.23.170]]></wp:comment_author_IP>
			<wp:comment_date><![CDATA[2008-05-09 16:31:45]]></wp:comment_date>
			<wp:comment_date_gmt><![CDATA[2008-05-09 15:31:45]]></wp:comment_date_gmt>
			<wp:comment_content><![CDATA[[...] Entrevista al diseñador grafico, tipógrafo y graphiste Harrison: &#8216;You need to copy to understand&#8217; [...]]]></wp:comment_content>
			<wp:comment_approved><![CDATA[1]]></wp:comment_approved>
			<wp:comment_type><![CDATA[pingback]]></wp:comment_type>
			<wp:comment_parent>0</wp:comment_parent>
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		<wp:comment>
			<wp:comment_id>45576</wp:comment_id>
			<wp:comment_author><![CDATA[Open Source Publishing (OSP): abriendo las fuentes en TheTrendNet. | ABSOLUT Network]]></wp:comment_author>
			<wp:comment_author_email><![CDATA[]]></wp:comment_author_email>
			<wp:comment_author_url>http://www.absolutnetwork.com/open-source-publishing-osp-abriendo-las-fuentes-en-thetrendnet/</wp:comment_author_url>
			<wp:comment_author_IP><![CDATA[212.36.75.91]]></wp:comment_author_IP>
			<wp:comment_date><![CDATA[2010-06-08 17:33:09]]></wp:comment_date>
			<wp:comment_date_gmt><![CDATA[2010-06-08 15:33:09]]></wp:comment_date_gmt>
			<wp:comment_content><![CDATA[[...] los proyectos colectivos e individuales de algunos miembros de este equipo como el diseñador belga Harrisson, Pierre Huyghebaert, Nicolas Maleve que opera actualmente desde Barcelona y el programador-escritor [...]]]></wp:comment_content>
			<wp:comment_approved><![CDATA[1]]></wp:comment_approved>
			<wp:comment_type><![CDATA[pingback]]></wp:comment_type>
			<wp:comment_parent>0</wp:comment_parent>
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		</wp:comment>
		<wp:comment>
			<wp:comment_id>48001</wp:comment_id>
			<wp:comment_author><![CDATA[Future Tools &raquo; Blog Archive &raquo; Back to the future]]></wp:comment_author>
			<wp:comment_author_email><![CDATA[]]></wp:comment_author_email>
			<wp:comment_author_url>http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/lgru/blog/?p=1</wp:comment_author_url>
			<wp:comment_author_IP><![CDATA[79.99.202.57]]></wp:comment_author_IP>
			<wp:comment_date><![CDATA[2011-07-08 17:36:09]]></wp:comment_date>
			<wp:comment_date_gmt><![CDATA[2011-07-08 15:36:09]]></wp:comment_date_gmt>
			<wp:comment_content><![CDATA[[...] You need to copy to understand. Interview with Harrisson (2006) link [...]]]></wp:comment_content>
			<wp:comment_approved><![CDATA[1]]></wp:comment_approved>
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	</item>
	<item>
		<title>Print Party 2.01 at Université Attac</title>
		<link>http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/news/print-party-201-at-universite-attac</link>
		<pubDate>Tue, 12 Sep 2006 19:42:42 +0000</pubDate>
		<dc:creator><![CDATA[Femke]]></dc:creator>
		<guid isPermaLink="false">http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=106</guid>
		<description></description>
		<content:encoded><![CDATA[<strong>Conditions of production and cultural consumption</strong>
After Nicolas gave a brief history of how author rights have developed and how the free software and copyleft movements responded to its increasing restrictive use...

<img id="image110" src="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/nicolas_speaks.JPG" alt="nicolas_speaks.JPG" />

...while trying to be not to grim about the way copyright laws are currently used and abused...

<img id="image109" src="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/votez.JPG" alt="votez.JPG" />
<small>This poster by Act Up (questioning the geneology of ideas put forward by French conservative  politician Nicolas Sarkozy) was banned, because photographers' rights were supposedly violated.</small>

...Harrisson and Femke offered the audience a small tasting of publishing, designing and printing with Open Source tools.

<img id="image108" src="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/talking.JPG" alt="talking.JPG" />
<!--more-->
We used the opportunity to launch <strong>Retrospective Readings</strong> with a small edition of Richard Stallman's GNU Manifesto - twenty years later still worth (re-)reading.

<img src="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/propaganda.JPG" alt="propaganda" />]]></content:encoded>
		<excerpt:encoded><![CDATA[]]></excerpt:encoded>
		<wp:post_id>106</wp:post_id>
		<wp:post_date><![CDATA[2006-09-12 20:42:42]]></wp:post_date>
		<wp:post_date_gmt><![CDATA[2006-09-12 19:42:42]]></wp:post_date_gmt>
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		<wp:post_name><![CDATA[print-party-201-at-universite-attac]]></wp:post_name>
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		<category domain="author" nicename="femke"><![CDATA[Femke]]></category>
		<category domain="category" nicename="live"><![CDATA[Live]]></category>
		<category domain="category" nicename="news"><![CDATA[News]]></category>
		<category domain="post_tag" nicename="print-party"><![CDATA[Print Party]]></category>
		<category domain="post_tag" nicename="printing-publishing"><![CDATA[Printing + Publishing]]></category>
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			<wp:meta_value><![CDATA[15]]></wp:meta_value>
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		<wp:comment>
			<wp:comment_id>521</wp:comment_id>
			<wp:comment_author><![CDATA[fade theory &raquo; the next level of self-publishing]]></wp:comment_author>
			<wp:comment_author_email><![CDATA[]]></wp:comment_author_email>
			<wp:comment_author_url>http://fadetheory.com/?p=1140</wp:comment_author_url>
			<wp:comment_author_IP><![CDATA[207.58.145.145]]></wp:comment_author_IP>
			<wp:comment_date><![CDATA[2006-11-06 23:09:48]]></wp:comment_date>
			<wp:comment_date_gmt><![CDATA[2006-11-06 22:09:48]]></wp:comment_date_gmt>
			<wp:comment_content><![CDATA[[...] I realize that self-publishing is a great (and, in some cases, the only) option for many writers. But I didn&#8217;t realize that some people have taken self-publishing to the next level, with publishing parties. (via Design Your Life) [...]]]></wp:comment_content>
			<wp:comment_approved><![CDATA[1]]></wp:comment_approved>
			<wp:comment_type><![CDATA[pingback]]></wp:comment_type>
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	<item>
		<title>Printing Party at Wizard of Os: Art &amp; Copyright</title>
		<link>http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/news/printing-party-at-wizard-of-os-art-copyright</link>
		<pubDate>Sun, 10 Sep 2006 19:56:05 +0000</pubDate>
		<dc:creator><![CDATA[Femke]]></dc:creator>
		<guid isPermaLink="false">http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=111</guid>
		<description></description>
		<content:encoded><![CDATA[Wednesday September 13, 10:00 – 20:00
Tesla, Klosterstraße 68-70, Berlin
<a href="http://wizards-of-os.org/index.php?id=2806">http://wizards-of-os.org/index.php?id=2806</a>
Workshop Organised by <strong>Cornelia Sollfrank</strong> and <strong>Nicolas Malevé</strong>
Printing Party by <strong>Harrisson</strong> & <strong>Pierre Huyghbaert
</strong>

<blockquote>FREEdom and OPENness – anything but marketing and ideology? Sharing, really? Culture from and for the Commons. One day before WOS4, an international group of artists, programmers and theoreticians will meet for a concentrated exchange of experiences within a workshop situation.
The programme of the day includes a general discussion about terminology, it will address questions of authorship, it offers the possibility for knowledge transfer in a section about free tools for artistic and cultural production and discusses their meaning for the quality of an artwork and it tries to evaluate the practice of applying open licences to works of art.
The meeting will be concluded by demonstrating a new model of open publishing (print on demand) as well as the use of free tools in design and publishing during the final “Printing Party.”</blockquote>

]]></content:encoded>
		<excerpt:encoded><![CDATA[]]></excerpt:encoded>
		<wp:post_id>111</wp:post_id>
		<wp:post_date><![CDATA[2006-09-10 20:56:05]]></wp:post_date>
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		<wp:post_name><![CDATA[printing-party-at-wizard-of-os-art-copyright]]></wp:post_name>
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		<title>Maternal Politics</title>
		<link>http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/texts/constant-verlag-maternal-politics</link>
		<pubDate>Sun, 10 Sep 2006 21:26:36 +0000</pubDate>
		<dc:creator><![CDATA[Femke]]></dc:creator>
		<guid isPermaLink="false">http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=115</guid>
		<description></description>
		<content:encoded><![CDATA[<a class="imagelink" title="maternal1.jpg" href="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/maternal1.jpg"><img id="image125" src="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/maternal1.thumbnail.jpg" alt="maternal1.jpg" /></a>
<strong>Maternal Politics</strong>, Irina Aristarkhova
Text available on line:
PDF lay-out: <a id="p116" href="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/maternal_politicsb.pdf">maternal_politicsb.pdf</a>
License:
Date of publishing: 03-06-2006 (Digitales)]]></content:encoded>
		<excerpt:encoded><![CDATA[]]></excerpt:encoded>
		<wp:post_id>115</wp:post_id>
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		<title>Les nouveaux habits de la copie</title>
		<link>http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/texts/constant-verlag-les-nouveaux-habits-de-la-copie</link>
		<pubDate>Sun, 10 Sep 2006 21:49:45 +0000</pubDate>
		<dc:creator><![CDATA[Femke]]></dc:creator>
		<guid isPermaLink="false">http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=119</guid>
		<description></description>
		<content:encoded><![CDATA[<a class="imagelink" title="habits.jpg" href="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/habits.jpg"><img id="image120" src="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/habits.thumbnail.jpg" alt="habits.jpg" /></a>
<strong>Les nouveaux habits de la copie</strong>, Nicolas Malevé
Text available on line: <a href="http://www.constantvzw.com/downloads/nouveaux_habits.pdf">http://www.constantvzw.com/downloads/nouveaux_habits.pdf</a>
PDF lay-out: <a id="p128" href="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/habits_quarantainec.pdf">habits_quarantainec.pdf</a>
PDF cover: <a id="p118" href="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/cover_robot.pdf">cover_robot.pdf</a>
License: Copyleft, License Art Libre
Date of publishing: 07-07-2006 (Quarantaine)]]></content:encoded>
		<excerpt:encoded><![CDATA[]]></excerpt:encoded>
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		<title>Manifeste GNU</title>
		<link>http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/downloads/retrospective-reading-manifeste-gnu</link>
		<pubDate>Sun, 10 Sep 2006 21:57:01 +0000</pubDate>
		<dc:creator><![CDATA[Femke]]></dc:creator>
		<guid isPermaLink="false">http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=123</guid>
		<description></description>
		<content:encoded><![CDATA[<a class="imagelink" href="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/manifesto.jpg" title="manifesto.jpg"><img id="image124" src="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/manifesto.thumbnail.jpg" alt="manifesto.jpg" /></a>
<strong>Manifeste GNU</strong>, Richard Stallman
Text available on line: <a href="http://www.gnu.org/gnu/manifesto.fr.html">http://www.gnu.org/gnu/manifesto.fr.html</a>
PDF lay-out: <a id="p121" href="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/retrospective_readingc.pdf">retrospective_readingc.pdf</a> 
PDF cover: <a id="p122" href="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/retro_attac_couvert.pdf">retro_attac_couvert.pdf</a>
License: Copyright © 1985, 1993, 2003, 2005 Free Software Foundation, Inc., 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301, USA / Verbatim copying and distribution of this entire article is permitted in any medium, provided this notice is preserved / La reproduction exacte et la distribution intégrale de cet article est permise sur n'importe quel support d'archivage, pourvu que cette notice soit préservée.
Date of publishing: 10-09-2006 (Université Attac)]]></content:encoded>
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		<wp:post_id>123</wp:post_id>
		<wp:post_date><![CDATA[2006-09-10 22:57:01]]></wp:post_date>
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		<title>About Constant Verlag</title>
		<link>http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/works/constant-verlag</link>
		<pubDate>Tue, 12 Sep 2006 21:16:26 +0000</pubDate>
		<dc:creator><![CDATA[OSP]]></dc:creator>
		<guid isPermaLink="false">http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=113</guid>
		<description></description>
		<content:encoded><![CDATA[<img id="image112" src="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/stapleparti.thumbnail.JPG" alt="stapleparti.JPG" />

<strong>Constant Verlag</strong> re-publishes material from the depth of the Constant Archives in A5 cahiers of maximum 48 pages. Some of those texts are available on line as well, others are just saved on one of our harddrives; some written in French, others in English or Dutch; recent or as early as 1997. In addition to material generated by Constant, we have started a sub-series <strong>Retrospective Readings</strong>, proposing you materials worth re-reading.

Find all editions here: <a href="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?cat=19">Constant Verlag</a>

If you want your own copy, visit us at a Printing Party or download the PDF and use <a href="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=90">this recipe</a>. All texts are layed-out using open source software, and available under a free licence.]]></content:encoded>
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		<wp:post_id>113</wp:post_id>
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		<title>Crash test: Travail mobile</title>
		<link>http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/works/crash-test-travail-mobile</link>
		<pubDate>Wed, 13 Sep 2006 08:30:47 +0000</pubDate>
		<dc:creator><![CDATA[Femke]]></dc:creator>
		<guid isPermaLink="false">http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=127</guid>
		<description></description>
		<content:encoded><![CDATA[<img id="image126" src="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/travail_screen.jpg" alt="travail_screen.jpg" />
<small>Lay-out in Scribus</small>
<a href="http://www.geuzen.org/download/travail_low.pdf">Download low-res PDF</a>
Finished! Sketched and produced a seven page contribution to <a href="http://www.skor.nl/set-635-nl.html?lang=en">Open</a> (Dutch bi-monthly on art in public space) + inside cover. Images were prepared in Gimp; pattern assembled in Inkskape and document lay-out in Scribus (v1.3.3.2); all on Ubuntu.
<!--more-->
- Importing outlines from Gimp, re-using them with multiple images / layers in Inkskape: flawless; selection editor + svg export in Gimp works well with vector options in Inkskape. Had some problems with transparency in PDF-export from Inkskape.
- EPS export from Scribus, after a few trials and errors flawless too; including transparency of layers.
- Lack of interaction with EPS-export is frustrating; default is to crop the document along its margins so all you can do is set margins to zero before export.
- EPS can only export one page at the time...
- Bleed is automatically cut off on export too, but making the document 3mm larger on each side, is a quick workaround.]]></content:encoded>
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		<wp:post_id>127</wp:post_id>
		<wp:post_date><![CDATA[2006-09-13 09:30:47]]></wp:post_date>
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		<title>Print Party Berlin</title>
		<link>http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/works/print-party-berlin</link>
		<pubDate>Mon, 18 Sep 2006 08:33:17 +0000</pubDate>
		<dc:creator><![CDATA[Harrisson]]></dc:creator>
		<guid isPermaLink="false">http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=129</guid>
		<description></description>
		<content:encoded><![CDATA[<img id="image132" src="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/panel.jpg" alt="panel.jpg" />

<img id="image131" src="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/orga.jpg" alt="orga.jpg" />

A report from the whole day is here: <a href="http://www.stormy-weather.be/wiki/index.php/FREEdom_and_OPENness%2C_workshop">http://www.stormy-weather.be/wiki/in...</a>
<!--more-->
For Wizard of OS Constant Printing Team members Harrisson and Pierre Huyghebaert showed that designing and printing booklets with Open Source software is nowhere near Science Fiction.

Wednesday the 13th of September, Pierre and Harrisson presented a Print Party during Wisard of Os 4. This event was taking place in Berlin. The critical panel, organised by Cornelia Solfrank and Nicolas Malevé at Tesla (former Podewil) gathered Laurence Rassel, Simon Yuill, Harrisson, Pierre Huyghebaert, Simon Worthington, Adam Hyde, Saul Albert, Gisle Froysland, Malte Steiner, Gordon Duggan, Eberhard Ortland, Hinrich Sachs, Aileen Derieg, Goran Djordevic, Gergers Petersen, Felix Stalder, Inke Arns, Jacob Lillemose, Annette Schindler, Dorothea Carl, Christian von Borries, …

This compact presentation was focused on the imposition of a 8 pages leaflet, that we succeded in printing, using non graphical interface softwares on Ubuntu. This little operation replaced what used to be done by a 10000 euro software 5 years ago.

<img id="image133" src="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/matos.jpg" alt="matos.jpg" />

<img id="image134" src="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/laurence.jpg" alt="laurence.jpg" />

Text set on paper is Femke Sneltings "Open Source Software for design" and OsBlogs "How To Print A Booklet In 19 Easy Steps", resulting in a "meta" publication on Constant Verlag.

<img id="image130" src="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/gnu_manifesto.jpg" alt="gnu_manifesto.jpg" />]]></content:encoded>
		<excerpt:encoded><![CDATA[]]></excerpt:encoded>
		<wp:post_id>129</wp:post_id>
		<wp:post_date><![CDATA[2006-09-18 09:33:17]]></wp:post_date>
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		<wp:post_name><![CDATA[print-party-berlin]]></wp:post_name>
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		<category domain="author" nicename="harrisson"><![CDATA[Harrisson]]></category>
		<category domain="category" nicename="live"><![CDATA[Live]]></category>
		<category domain="post_tag" nicename="print-party"><![CDATA[Print Party]]></category>
		<category domain="post_tag" nicename="printing-publishing"><![CDATA[Printing + Publishing]]></category>
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		<title>Design Tools for Designers &amp; 19 Steps to do a Booklet</title>
		<link>http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/downloads/design-tools-for-designers-19-steps-to-do-a-booklet</link>
		<pubDate>Mon, 18 Sep 2006 15:38:15 +0000</pubDate>
		<dc:creator><![CDATA[Harrisson]]></dc:creator>
		<guid isPermaLink="false">http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=135</guid>
		<description></description>
		<content:encoded><![CDATA[<a class="imagelink" href="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/osblog.JPG" title="osblog.JPG"><img id="image138" src="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/osblog.thumbnail.JPG" alt="osblog.JPG" /></a>
<strong>Design Tools for Designers</strong>, Femke Snelting
<strong>19 steps to do a Booklet</strong>, OsBlog
Text available on line: <a href="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=90">OSBlog</a>
PDF lay-out: <a id="p137" href="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/berlin_pp.pdf">berlin_pp.pdf</a>
PDF cover: <a id="p136" href='http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/cover_berlin.pdf'  title="cover_berlin.pdf">cover_berlin.pdf</a>
License: Licence Art Libre
Date of publishing: 13-09-2006 (Wizard of OS - Berlin)]]></content:encoded>
		<excerpt:encoded><![CDATA[]]></excerpt:encoded>
		<wp:post_id>135</wp:post_id>
		<wp:post_date><![CDATA[2006-09-18 16:38:15]]></wp:post_date>
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		<wp:comment>
			<wp:comment_id>7387</wp:comment_id>
			<wp:comment_author><![CDATA[Femke]]></wp:comment_author>
			<wp:comment_author_email><![CDATA[snelting@geuzen.org]]></wp:comment_author_email>
			<wp:comment_author_url>http://www.geuzen.org</wp:comment_author_url>
			<wp:comment_author_IP><![CDATA[212.68.194.238]]></wp:comment_author_IP>
			<wp:comment_date><![CDATA[2007-09-17 15:16:13]]></wp:comment_date>
			<wp:comment_date_gmt><![CDATA[2007-09-17 14:16:13]]></wp:comment_date_gmt>
			<wp:comment_content><![CDATA[Fixed :-)]]></wp:comment_content>
			<wp:comment_approved><![CDATA[1]]></wp:comment_approved>
			<wp:comment_type><![CDATA[]]></wp:comment_type>
			<wp:comment_parent>0</wp:comment_parent>
			<wp:comment_user_id>2</wp:comment_user_id>
		</wp:comment>
		<wp:comment>
			<wp:comment_id>6818</wp:comment_id>
			<wp:comment_author><![CDATA[Wendy]]></wp:comment_author>
			<wp:comment_author_email><![CDATA[wendy@constantvzw.com]]></wp:comment_author_email>
			<wp:comment_author_url></wp:comment_author_url>
			<wp:comment_author_IP><![CDATA[84.197.60.242]]></wp:comment_author_IP>
			<wp:comment_date><![CDATA[2007-09-12 12:49:15]]></wp:comment_date>
			<wp:comment_date_gmt><![CDATA[2007-09-12 11:49:15]]></wp:comment_date_gmt>
			<wp:comment_content><![CDATA[Hey,

I cannot see the cover_berlin.pdf -&gt; can you fix this? I need to know under which licence the cover is made. Dankuwel!!

Muchas Gracias!]]></wp:comment_content>
			<wp:comment_approved><![CDATA[1]]></wp:comment_approved>
			<wp:comment_type><![CDATA[]]></wp:comment_type>
			<wp:comment_parent>0</wp:comment_parent>
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	</item>
	<item>
		<title>When standards are political</title>
		<link>http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/news/when-standards-are-political-odf-the-open-document-format</link>
		<pubDate>Tue, 24 Oct 2006 14:15:24 +0000</pubDate>
		<dc:creator><![CDATA[Femke]]></dc:creator>
		<guid isPermaLink="false">http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=139</guid>
		<description></description>
		<content:encoded><![CDATA[<a href="http://www.cptech.org/">James Love</a> just posted this interesting report on Nettime:
<strong>
When standards are political -- ODF (the Open Document Format)</strong>
Yesterday I attended a meeting hosted by TACD at Harvard's Berkman Center about a very important issue -- one that is both highly technical and political at the same time -- the battle over the Open Document Format (ODF).

(See links: <a href="http://www.cptech.org/a2k/odf/odfwkshop20oct06/">http://www.cptech.org/a2k/odf/odfwkshop20oct06/</a>, <a href="http://&lt;br &gt;&lt;/a&gt; www.tacd.org, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/OpenDocument">http://
www.tacd.org, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/OpenDocument</a>)

The technical part concerns what ODF is -- an open specification for the formats of common documents such as those created by word processors, spreadsheets and presentation graphics programs. The political part concerns what ODF represents -- an end to the Microsoft monopoly in desktop applications that are used to author and manage these documents."

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Estimates vary, but Microsoft probably controls somewhere between 90 to 95 percent of the market for word processing, spreadsheet and presentation graphics programs. This means people use Microsoft software to create these documents, and also to store data. The source of Microsoft's monopoly is control over file formats, in a world where data needs to be shared.

Lots of companies or even free software communities can create
software to do these common tasks. Corel's WordPerfect office suite,
Apple's iWorks, the OpenOffice.Org, and doc.google.com are just a few
examples of "competitors" to Microsoft office, each controlling a
tiny part of the small non-Microsoft market share. But as we all
know, we need to exchange data. With everyone using email and the
web, we need to consider if others can read our documents, and if we
can read what we receive from others.

By failing to document their own (periodically modified) file
formats, and not supporting the file formats of competitors,
Microsoft has been able to create a very compelling reason to buy,
and buy again, Microsoft software. Documents created in (current
versions) of Microsoft's software are the best way to read documents
other people create using Microsoft's software. So long as everyone
uses a reasonably current version of Microsoft's software, everything
more or less works.

You can try to avoid using Microsoft -- but at price. Documents might
not look right. Sometimes the differences are small -- but sometimes
they are almost unusable. For this reason, most of the entire
computer using world now relies upon software from Microsoft. Other
companies don't even bother to invest in competing products. There is
very little choice or innovation in this product space.

Some people say this is inevitable, but of course, this is not true.
The lack of interoperability is deliberate -- the linchpin of
Microsoft's monopoly. But if the public could embrace an open format
for documents, the outcome would be much different. There would be
more competition, more innovation, better products, cheaper prices,
etc. And there is a highly relevant example -- the web.

Web pages are build upon the foundation of open format - called HTML
- for hypertext mark-up language. The standards for HTML are
determined by the World Wide Web Consortium - which is not controlled
by any one company. The formats are open, well documented, and
designed to work with different software and hardware. It has
probably been the most influential and important data standard in the
history of publishing.

There are now thousands of high quality and innovative tools to
author web pages. Microsoft offers a few, but they were never able to
establish a significant market share. Indeed, there is no "leading"
tool for creating web pages. Instead, there is an astonishing variety
of methods of doing so - ranging from bare bones text based html
editing tools to incredibility easy to use blogging software -
offered by a variety of companies, free software projects or even
individuals.

The "Open Document Format" (ODF) effort has been led by a large group
of non-Microsoft software companies that are seeking to level the
playing field for software tools to author and manage text, data and
graphics. It is pretty new, only having been approved by ISO/IEC on
May 8, 2006. So far, only a handful of products support ODF,
including the much improved free software office suite called
OpenOffice.Org, the online program docs.google.com, and some Linux
only applications. Apple, Corel and Microsoft have yet to suport ODF.

A handful of thoughtful government officials are trying to require
software vendors, including Microsoft, to use this new open standard,
in order to achieve a number of important public policy objectives,
including:

* More competition among suppliers of software,
* Improved ability to manage archives of data,
* Enhanced ability to use and re-purpose data contained in documents.

The State of Massachusetts and the government of Belgium and Denmark
have already put in place requirements that ODF be supported by
software companies, and now other governments are beginning to
consider similar initiatives. If they succeed, it could result in a
revolution in the structure of the entire software market, and bring
much needed competition and innovation to these important areas.

Next year Microsoft will try to sell the public on it's latest file
format -- "Open XML", which they are marketing as a "competitor" to
ODF as an "open" data format. Open XML was described by one expert as
a standard that only Microsoft could implement - similar to a job
description custom made for a single job applicant.

Next month in Athens, Greece, at the new "Internet Governance Forum,"
there will be proposals for global norms to support open standards
for key aspects of information technologies, including but not
limited to data formats. Many people are nervous about these issues,
because Microsoft is investing millions to defeat them, and to attack
personally government officials who Microsoft sees as too friendly to
open standards, and to reward politicians and government officials
who back Microsoft.

This battle, which is often very difficult to follow at the level of
the technical details, is quite important. For years we have
tolerated the manipulation of data formats to maintain a monopoly
that has imposed all sorts of costs of society, in terms of high
prices, lack of innovation and poor quality software. One only needs
to compare the innovation seen on web publishing to the dearth of
innovation you see on the computer desktop. If ODF succeeds now,
Microsoft will have to compete on the basis of prices and quality -
rather than by being the only product that will not mangle a
document. That should be a good thing for everyone in the long run.

State and federal government agencies should be asked to require that
software vendors support ODF.]]></content:encoded>
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		<wp:post_date><![CDATA[2006-10-24 15:15:24]]></wp:post_date>
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			<wp:comment_id>458</wp:comment_id>
			<wp:comment_author><![CDATA[nicolas]]></wp:comment_author>
			<wp:comment_author_email><![CDATA[copy.cult@constantvzw.com]]></wp:comment_author_email>
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			<wp:comment_author_IP><![CDATA[81.242.232.70]]></wp:comment_author_IP>
			<wp:comment_date><![CDATA[2006-10-24 16:47:53]]></wp:comment_date>
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			<wp:comment_content><![CDATA[From http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/OpenDocument

Belgium will be the first country to forbid de facto the use of proprietary formats for the administration's documents, from September 2008 on.

Vendredi 23 juin 2006, le Gouvernement fédéral belge décide de rendre obligatoire dans son administration le format Open Document à partir de septembre 2008[2]. La Belgique sera le premier État au monde qui interdira de facto l'usage des formats propriétaires tels ceux de Microsoft (ref : (fr) http://www.belgium.be/eportal/application?pageid=contentPage&amp;languageParameter=fr&amp;docId=38505) (ref : (en) http://www.techworld.com/applications/news/index.cfm?newsID=6335&amp;pagtype=all) (ref : (nl) http://www.standaard.be/Artikel/Detail.aspx?artikelid=GB1U60S9 ). En septembre 2008, ODF devrait être obligatoire entre les differents services et administrations belges.]]></wp:comment_content>
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		<title>From a small but growing movement</title>
		<link>http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/typo/from-a-small-but-growing-movement</link>
		<pubDate>Fri, 27 Oct 2006 14:40:43 +0000</pubDate>
		<dc:creator><![CDATA[Harrisson]]></dc:creator>
		<guid isPermaLink="false">http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=140</guid>
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		<content:encoded><![CDATA[<img id="image141" src="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/revised_banner.gif" alt="revised_banner.gif" />
Due to my recent task of teaching typography, I was looking around for courses and experiences in that domain. This drove me to Ellen Lupton's website, teacher at Maryland Institute College of Art (MICA): <a href="http://www.designwritingresearch.org/index.html">www.designwritingresearch.org</a>. There, in an impressive generosity, you can consult her current syllabi and exercices of hight quality courses.

She's is also a responsive designers awared of the problematic of proprietary fonts in design. Her website host a free font manifesto page: <a href="http://www.designwritingresearch.org/free_fonts.html">http://www.designwritingresearch.org/free_fonts.html
</a>
Lupton wrote several books on teaching typography. The manual "thinking with type" is a reference in the field. This book is accompanied by a rich teaching website: <a href="http://www.thinkingwithtype.com/">thinkingwithtype.com</a> which gives number of exercices and "adaptative" syllabus.

She's editor in <a href="http://freefontmanifesto.blogspot.com/">Freefontmanifesto Blog</a>]]></content:encoded>
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			<wp:comment_id>489</wp:comment_id>
			<wp:comment_author><![CDATA[Femke]]></wp:comment_author>
			<wp:comment_author_email><![CDATA[snelting@geuzen.org]]></wp:comment_author_email>
			<wp:comment_author_url>http://www.geuzen.org</wp:comment_author_url>
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			<wp:comment_date><![CDATA[2006-11-02 01:59:35]]></wp:comment_date>
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			<wp:comment_content><![CDATA[What a good news she did that (and great find)! The text of her lecture 'Univers Strikes Back' is really helpful in many respects... can't wait to see more serious responses to her weblog.]]></wp:comment_content>
			<wp:comment_approved><![CDATA[1]]></wp:comment_approved>
			<wp:comment_type><![CDATA[]]></wp:comment_type>
			<wp:comment_parent>0</wp:comment_parent>
			<wp:comment_user_id>2</wp:comment_user_id>
		</wp:comment>
	</item>
	<item>
		<title>Open DIN: Das Ist Norm</title>
		<link>http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/typo/open-din-das-ist-norm</link>
		<pubDate>Thu, 02 Nov 2006 11:08:23 +0000</pubDate>
		<dc:creator><![CDATA[Femke]]></dc:creator>
		<guid isPermaLink="false">http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=142</guid>
		<description></description>
		<content:encoded><![CDATA[<strong>What does it mean, when a typeface is released in the public domain? What are the legal issues surrounding typography? How can a font be generated collaboratively, using open source software? What does it mean, an open standard and how can such a standard fit different contexts?</strong>

<img id="image148" src="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/q-32.jpg" alt="DIN_Q" />

To get our hands into these and many other interesting, but difficult questions, the Open Source Publishing team has embarked on a new adventure. In the coming year, we will be working on a new digital rendering of the classic DIN font with the aim to release it in the public domain. 

We chose DIN (often referred to as "the German Autobahn typeface") as a starting point for a few reasons. 

First of all, because it is one of the rare typefaces that was released into the public domain from the moment it was designed in 1932. While the original drawings remain freely available, various type foundries have copyrighted digital renderings (see: <a href="http://www.linotype.com/306/din1451-family.html">http://www.linotype.com/</a> and <a href="http://www.fontfont.com/shop/index.ep?cview=P71702D&clist=PD">http://www.fontfont.com/</a>). 

Secondly because its particular history brings up many questions about standards, their political implications and relations to use. In 1936 the German Standard Committee decided DIN should be employed in technology, traffic, administration, and business, with the idea to facilitate the development of German engineering and industry. Our point of departure is therefore far from neutral ground.

Collaborators: Pierre Huyghebaert, Harrisson, Philip May, Nicolas Maleve and Femke Snelting.]]></content:encoded>
		<excerpt:encoded><![CDATA[]]></excerpt:encoded>
		<wp:post_id>142</wp:post_id>
		<wp:post_date><![CDATA[2006-11-02 12:08:23]]></wp:post_date>
		<wp:post_date_gmt><![CDATA[2006-11-02 11:08:23]]></wp:post_date_gmt>
		<wp:comment_status><![CDATA[closed]]></wp:comment_status>
		<wp:ping_status><![CDATA[closed]]></wp:ping_status>
		<wp:post_name><![CDATA[open-din-das-ist-norm]]></wp:post_name>
		<wp:status><![CDATA[publish]]></wp:status>
		<wp:post_parent>0</wp:post_parent>
		<wp:menu_order>0</wp:menu_order>
		<wp:post_type><![CDATA[post]]></wp:post_type>
		<wp:post_password><![CDATA[]]></wp:post_password>
		<wp:is_sticky>0</wp:is_sticky>
		<category domain="author" nicename="femke"><![CDATA[Femke]]></category>
		<category domain="post_tag" nicename="din"><![CDATA[DIN]]></category>
		<category domain="post_tag" nicename="standards-formats"><![CDATA[Standards + Formats]]></category>
		<category domain="category" nicename="typo"><![CDATA[Type]]></category>
		<wp:postmeta>
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			<wp:meta_value><![CDATA[a:2:{s:4:"time";i:1223516056;s:13:"related_posts";s:1154:"<ul class="related_post"><li><a href="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=388" title="DIN 4">DIN 4</a></li><li><a href="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=400" title="The situation looks very bright">The situation looks very bright</a></li><li><a href="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=390" title="FOSDEM 2008">FOSDEM 2008</a></li><li><a href="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=376" title="UniConvertor!">UniConvertor!</a></li><li><a href="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=299" title="Open Printing Summit">Open Printing Summit</a></li><li><a href="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=212" title="DIN - Das Ist Norm - III">DIN - Das Ist Norm - III</a></li><li><a href="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=252" title="Le grec, c&#8217;est du chinois">Le grec, c&#8217;est du chinois</a></li><li><a href="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=250" title="The double aspect of code">The double aspect of code</a></li><li><a href="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=248" title="Further Liberation.">Further Liberation.</a></li><li><a href="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=192" title="DIN - Das Ist Norm - II">DIN - Das Ist Norm - II</a></li></ul>";}]]></wp:meta_value>
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		<wp:comment>
			<wp:comment_id>651</wp:comment_id>
			<wp:comment_author><![CDATA[ignacio]]></wp:comment_author>
			<wp:comment_author_email><![CDATA[ignaciogarcia@platoniq.net]]></wp:comment_author_email>
			<wp:comment_author_url></wp:comment_author_url>
			<wp:comment_author_IP><![CDATA[81.36.162.242]]></wp:comment_author_IP>
			<wp:comment_date><![CDATA[2006-11-18 10:49:16]]></wp:comment_date>
			<wp:comment_date_gmt><![CDATA[2006-11-18 09:49:16]]></wp:comment_date_gmt>
			<wp:comment_content><![CDATA[this is a great initiative, please don't forget to include the spanish special characters!]]></wp:comment_content>
			<wp:comment_approved><![CDATA[1]]></wp:comment_approved>
			<wp:comment_type><![CDATA[]]></wp:comment_type>
			<wp:comment_parent>0</wp:comment_parent>
			<wp:comment_user_id>0</wp:comment_user_id>
		</wp:comment>
		<wp:comment>
			<wp:comment_id>3758</wp:comment_id>
			<wp:comment_author><![CDATA[Elle]]></wp:comment_author>
			<wp:comment_author_email><![CDATA[beer.brommel@hotmail.com]]></wp:comment_author_email>
			<wp:comment_author_url></wp:comment_author_url>
			<wp:comment_author_IP><![CDATA[80.200.0.105]]></wp:comment_author_IP>
			<wp:comment_date><![CDATA[2007-06-23 20:45:12]]></wp:comment_date>
			<wp:comment_date_gmt><![CDATA[2007-06-23 19:45:12]]></wp:comment_date_gmt>
			<wp:comment_content><![CDATA[I really am looking forward to this open font, since I am looking for it a long time]]></wp:comment_content>
			<wp:comment_approved><![CDATA[1]]></wp:comment_approved>
			<wp:comment_type><![CDATA[]]></wp:comment_type>
			<wp:comment_parent>0</wp:comment_parent>
			<wp:comment_user_id>0</wp:comment_user_id>
		</wp:comment>
		<wp:comment>
			<wp:comment_id>42774</wp:comment_id>
			<wp:comment_author><![CDATA[nitrofurano]]></wp:comment_author>
			<wp:comment_author_email><![CDATA[nitrofurano@gmail.com]]></wp:comment_author_email>
			<wp:comment_author_url>http://nitrofurano.linuxkafe.com</wp:comment_author_url>
			<wp:comment_author_IP><![CDATA[87.196.141.193]]></wp:comment_author_IP>
			<wp:comment_date><![CDATA[2008-09-11 00:28:13]]></wp:comment_date>
			<wp:comment_date_gmt><![CDATA[2008-09-10 23:28:13]]></wp:comment_date_gmt>
			<wp:comment_content><![CDATA[does it mean getting paths from Manuale Tipografico (and alike) raster scans we can have an OpenBodoni without having legal problems with those known foundries used to sell Bodoni, since a 250 year old work is a public domain?]]></wp:comment_content>
			<wp:comment_approved><![CDATA[1]]></wp:comment_approved>
			<wp:comment_type><![CDATA[]]></wp:comment_type>
			<wp:comment_parent>0</wp:comment_parent>
			<wp:comment_user_id>0</wp:comment_user_id>
		</wp:comment>
		<wp:comment>
			<wp:comment_id>44696</wp:comment_id>
			<wp:comment_author><![CDATA[nitrofurano]]></wp:comment_author>
			<wp:comment_author_email><![CDATA[nitrofurano@gmail.com]]></wp:comment_author_email>
			<wp:comment_author_url>http://nitrofurano.linuxkafe.com</wp:comment_author_url>
			<wp:comment_author_IP><![CDATA[87.196.147.20]]></wp:comment_author_IP>
			<wp:comment_date><![CDATA[2009-02-23 18:21:24]]></wp:comment_date>
			<wp:comment_date_gmt><![CDATA[2009-02-23 17:21:24]]></wp:comment_date_gmt>
			<wp:comment_content><![CDATA[i forgot to tell about this project: http://klepas.org/openbaskerville/

(how can we delete that mistaken previous post?)]]></wp:comment_content>
			<wp:comment_approved><![CDATA[1]]></wp:comment_approved>
			<wp:comment_type><![CDATA[]]></wp:comment_type>
			<wp:comment_parent>0</wp:comment_parent>
			<wp:comment_user_id>0</wp:comment_user_id>
		</wp:comment>
		<wp:comment>
			<wp:comment_id>44859</wp:comment_id>
			<wp:comment_author><![CDATA[nitrofurano]]></wp:comment_author>
			<wp:comment_author_email><![CDATA[nitrofurano@gmail.com]]></wp:comment_author_email>
			<wp:comment_author_url>http://nitrofurano.gmail.com</wp:comment_author_url>
			<wp:comment_author_IP><![CDATA[87.196.237.33]]></wp:comment_author_IP>
			<wp:comment_date><![CDATA[2009-06-18 01:50:00]]></wp:comment_date>
			<wp:comment_date_gmt><![CDATA[2009-06-17 23:50:00]]></wp:comment_date_gmt>
			<wp:comment_content><![CDATA[http://www.fontshop.be/upload/0ZC7YPAC.jpg - found this master drawing of Prussian Railways typeface - if someone have this in a better resolution, please let us know! :)]]></wp:comment_content>
			<wp:comment_approved><![CDATA[1]]></wp:comment_approved>
			<wp:comment_type><![CDATA[]]></wp:comment_type>
			<wp:comment_parent>0</wp:comment_parent>
			<wp:comment_user_id>0</wp:comment_user_id>
		</wp:comment>
		<wp:comment>
			<wp:comment_id>44858</wp:comment_id>
			<wp:comment_author><![CDATA[nitrofurano]]></wp:comment_author>
			<wp:comment_author_email><![CDATA[nitrofurano@gmail.com]]></wp:comment_author_email>
			<wp:comment_author_url>http://nitrofurano.gmail.com</wp:comment_author_url>
			<wp:comment_author_IP><![CDATA[87.196.237.33]]></wp:comment_author_IP>
			<wp:comment_date><![CDATA[2009-06-17 17:18:06]]></wp:comment_date>
			<wp:comment_date_gmt><![CDATA[2009-06-17 15:18:06]]></wp:comment_date_gmt>
			<wp:comment_content><![CDATA[Since this typeface were designed to be drawn over an orthogonal square grid, i didn't care about kernings - i think this would reach closelly the idea of the Prussian Railways at early 20th century - but, if the kerning needs really exists, could it be a good idea to be snapped to 50 or 25 units multiples?]]></wp:comment_content>
			<wp:comment_approved><![CDATA[1]]></wp:comment_approved>
			<wp:comment_type><![CDATA[]]></wp:comment_type>
			<wp:comment_parent>0</wp:comment_parent>
			<wp:comment_user_id>0</wp:comment_user_id>
		</wp:comment>
		<wp:comment>
			<wp:comment_id>44857</wp:comment_id>
			<wp:comment_author><![CDATA[nitrofurano]]></wp:comment_author>
			<wp:comment_author_email><![CDATA[nitrofurano@gmail.com]]></wp:comment_author_email>
			<wp:comment_author_url>http://nitrofurano.gmail.com</wp:comment_author_url>
			<wp:comment_author_IP><![CDATA[87.196.237.33]]></wp:comment_author_IP>
			<wp:comment_date><![CDATA[2009-06-17 17:09:00]]></wp:comment_date>
			<wp:comment_date_gmt><![CDATA[2009-06-17 15:09:00]]></wp:comment_date_gmt>
			<wp:comment_content><![CDATA[http://www.magwerk.com/mag.php?magazine=encore&amp;language=en&amp;issue=13&amp;page=34 helped me fixing http://pastebin.com/f21f16ecd (sfd) and http://pastebin.com/f4293eabb (svg) - accessing the original master drawing would help a lot indeed]]></wp:comment_content>
			<wp:comment_approved><![CDATA[1]]></wp:comment_approved>
			<wp:comment_type><![CDATA[]]></wp:comment_type>
			<wp:comment_parent>0</wp:comment_parent>
			<wp:comment_user_id>0</wp:comment_user_id>
		</wp:comment>
		<wp:comment>
			<wp:comment_id>44855</wp:comment_id>
			<wp:comment_author><![CDATA[nitrofurano]]></wp:comment_author>
			<wp:comment_author_email><![CDATA[nitrofurano@gmail.com]]></wp:comment_author_email>
			<wp:comment_author_url>http://nitrofurano.gmail.com</wp:comment_author_url>
			<wp:comment_author_IP><![CDATA[87.196.237.33]]></wp:comment_author_IP>
			<wp:comment_date><![CDATA[2009-06-17 00:53:12]]></wp:comment_date>
			<wp:comment_date_gmt><![CDATA[2009-06-16 22:53:12]]></wp:comment_date_gmt>
			<wp:comment_content><![CDATA[i don't know if http://pastebin.com/f200354ae (sfd) and http://pastebin.com/f69957ad6 (svg) can be considered a start - of course it's plenty of mistakes, and i'm not completelly assured about if the licence of the original DIN drawing is really public domain (i imagine it is anyway...)]]></wp:comment_content>
			<wp:comment_approved><![CDATA[1]]></wp:comment_approved>
			<wp:comment_type><![CDATA[]]></wp:comment_type>
			<wp:comment_parent>0</wp:comment_parent>
			<wp:comment_user_id>0</wp:comment_user_id>
		</wp:comment>
		<wp:comment>
			<wp:comment_id>44853</wp:comment_id>
			<wp:comment_author><![CDATA[nitrofurano]]></wp:comment_author>
			<wp:comment_author_email><![CDATA[nitrofurano@gmail.com]]></wp:comment_author_email>
			<wp:comment_author_url>http://nitrofurano.gmail.com</wp:comment_author_url>
			<wp:comment_author_IP><![CDATA[87.196.237.33]]></wp:comment_author_IP>
			<wp:comment_date><![CDATA[2009-06-16 19:54:07]]></wp:comment_date>
			<wp:comment_date_gmt><![CDATA[2009-06-16 17:54:07]]></wp:comment_date_gmt>
			<wp:comment_content><![CDATA[Interesting is seeing both Linotype and Fontfont versions are very different of the original Engschrift - both seems to try to fix some 'mistakes' from the original, and if some version (open, for example) follows strictly from the original (which seems to be public domain?), i think it may not have licensing problems... - i don't know if this http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:DIN1451board.jpg is the original master drawing, and where can we get one with better quality...]]></wp:comment_content>
			<wp:comment_approved><![CDATA[1]]></wp:comment_approved>
			<wp:comment_type><![CDATA[]]></wp:comment_type>
			<wp:comment_parent>0</wp:comment_parent>
			<wp:comment_user_id>0</wp:comment_user_id>
		</wp:comment>
		<wp:comment>
			<wp:comment_id>44638</wp:comment_id>
			<wp:comment_author><![CDATA[paulo]]></wp:comment_author>
			<wp:comment_author_email><![CDATA[nitrofurano@gmail.com]]></wp:comment_author_email>
			<wp:comment_author_url>http://nitrofurano.linuxkafe.com</wp:comment_author_url>
			<wp:comment_author_IP><![CDATA[87.196.56.143]]></wp:comment_author_IP>
			<wp:comment_date><![CDATA[2008-12-28 12:05:27]]></wp:comment_date>
			<wp:comment_date_gmt><![CDATA[2008-12-28 11:05:27]]></wp:comment_date_gmt>
			<wp:comment_content><![CDATA[not exactly about Din - the original drawings of Garamond seems to be in a Belgium museum - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plantin-Moretus_Museum - would be possible an Open-Garamond being made from these drawings? http://barneycarroll.com/garamond.htm]]></wp:comment_content>
			<wp:comment_approved><![CDATA[1]]></wp:comment_approved>
			<wp:comment_type><![CDATA[]]></wp:comment_type>
			<wp:comment_parent>0</wp:comment_parent>
			<wp:comment_user_id>0</wp:comment_user_id>
		</wp:comment>
		<wp:comment>
			<wp:comment_id>44862</wp:comment_id>
			<wp:comment_author><![CDATA[nitrofurano]]></wp:comment_author>
			<wp:comment_author_email><![CDATA[nitrofurano@gmail.com]]></wp:comment_author_email>
			<wp:comment_author_url>http://nitrofurano.gmail.com</wp:comment_author_url>
			<wp:comment_author_IP><![CDATA[87.196.237.33]]></wp:comment_author_IP>
			<wp:comment_date><![CDATA[2009-06-18 18:24:12]]></wp:comment_date>
			<wp:comment_date_gmt><![CDATA[2009-06-18 16:24:12]]></wp:comment_date_gmt>
			<wp:comment_content><![CDATA[when trying to upload to openfontlibrary.org - "/var/www/openfontlibrary.org/htdocs/cclib/cc-debug.php"(287): error_log(../cchost_offline/cc-log.txt) [function.error-log]: failed to open stream: No such file or directory [2009-06-18 16:22 pm][127.0.0.1][/media/submit/font] - beautiful...]]></wp:comment_content>
			<wp:comment_approved><![CDATA[1]]></wp:comment_approved>
			<wp:comment_type><![CDATA[]]></wp:comment_type>
			<wp:comment_parent>0</wp:comment_parent>
			<wp:comment_user_id>0</wp:comment_user_id>
		</wp:comment>
		<wp:comment>
			<wp:comment_id>44863</wp:comment_id>
			<wp:comment_author><![CDATA[nitrofurano]]></wp:comment_author>
			<wp:comment_author_email><![CDATA[nitrofurano@gmail.com]]></wp:comment_author_email>
			<wp:comment_author_url>http://nitrofurano.gmail.com</wp:comment_author_url>
			<wp:comment_author_IP><![CDATA[87.196.237.33]]></wp:comment_author_IP>
			<wp:comment_date><![CDATA[2009-06-18 19:38:20]]></wp:comment_date>
			<wp:comment_date_gmt><![CDATA[2009-06-18 17:38:20]]></wp:comment_date_gmt>
			<wp:comment_content><![CDATA[last version at http://gnome-look.org/content/show.php?content=107153]]></wp:comment_content>
			<wp:comment_approved><![CDATA[1]]></wp:comment_approved>
			<wp:comment_type><![CDATA[]]></wp:comment_type>
			<wp:comment_parent>0</wp:comment_parent>
			<wp:comment_user_id>0</wp:comment_user_id>
		</wp:comment>
		<wp:comment>
			<wp:comment_id>45541</wp:comment_id>
			<wp:comment_author><![CDATA[Waarom betalen voor iets dat gemeen goed is? &laquo; Jeffry Baecker]]></wp:comment_author>
			<wp:comment_author_email><![CDATA[]]></wp:comment_author_email>
			<wp:comment_author_url>http://jeffrybaecker.wordpress.com/2010/05/19/waarom-betalen-voor-iets-dat-gemeen-goed-is/</wp:comment_author_url>
			<wp:comment_author_IP><![CDATA[66.135.48.201]]></wp:comment_author_IP>
			<wp:comment_date><![CDATA[2010-05-19 11:46:23]]></wp:comment_date>
			<wp:comment_date_gmt><![CDATA[2010-05-19 09:46:23]]></wp:comment_date_gmt>
			<wp:comment_content><![CDATA[[...] Waarom betalen voor iets dat gemeen goed&nbsp;is? 19/05/2010   Via OSP [...]]]></wp:comment_content>
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		<title>Skeleton, Corset, Skin</title>
		<link>http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/texts/skeleton-corset-skin</link>
		<pubDate>Fri, 03 Nov 2006 00:14:02 +0000</pubDate>
		<dc:creator><![CDATA[Femke]]></dc:creator>
		<guid isPermaLink="false">http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=144</guid>
		<description></description>
		<content:encoded><![CDATA[<img id="image143" src="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/arntz_men.thumbnail.JPG" alt="The Men of Arntz" /><img id="image143" src="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/arntz_men.thumbnail.JPG" alt="The Men of Arntz" /><img id="image143" src="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/arntz_men.thumbnail.JPG" alt="The Men of Arntz" />
<a href="http://stroom.nl/activiteiten/manifestatie.php?m_id=4653044">Stroom Den Haag</a> started their year long project <em>After Neurath</em> with a public symposium. <em>After Neurath</em> looked/looks at the relevance of 1930's philosopher and information activist Otto Neurath, and as you can imagine various familiar issues came up.

More information about Otto Neurath: <a href="http://www.stroom.nl/webdossiers/webdossier.php?wd_id=3530772">http://www.stroom.nl/webdossiers/webdossier.php?wd_id=3530772</a>

The project is curated by Steve Rushton. Speakers: Frank Hartmann, Robin Kinross, Kristóf Nyíri and myself.

My talk is here: <a id="p146" href="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/corsetskinskeleton.pdf">corsetskinskeleton.pdf</a>]]></content:encoded>
		<excerpt:encoded><![CDATA[]]></excerpt:encoded>
		<wp:post_id>144</wp:post_id>
		<wp:post_date><![CDATA[2006-11-03 01:14:02]]></wp:post_date>
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		<wp:post_name><![CDATA[skeleton-corset-skin]]></wp:post_name>
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		<wp:comment>
			<wp:comment_id>497</wp:comment_id>
			<wp:comment_author><![CDATA[Nicolas]]></wp:comment_author>
			<wp:comment_author_email><![CDATA[copy.cult@constantvzw.com]]></wp:comment_author_email>
			<wp:comment_author_url></wp:comment_author_url>
			<wp:comment_author_IP><![CDATA[81.247.169.103]]></wp:comment_author_IP>
			<wp:comment_date><![CDATA[2006-11-03 12:07:18]]></wp:comment_date>
			<wp:comment_date_gmt><![CDATA[2006-11-03 11:07:18]]></wp:comment_date_gmt>
			<wp:comment_content><![CDATA[Had only the time to glance at it. Looks exciting. You should send it to Peggy and the Spip developpers she thinks may be interested.]]></wp:comment_content>
			<wp:comment_approved><![CDATA[1]]></wp:comment_approved>
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		<title>Design for the common good</title>
		<link>http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/news/design-for-the-common-good</link>
		<pubDate>Fri, 24 Nov 2006 23:08:53 +0000</pubDate>
		<dc:creator><![CDATA[Femke]]></dc:creator>
		<guid isPermaLink="false">http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=151</guid>
		<description></description>
		<content:encoded><![CDATA[This week the <a href="http://www.premsela.org">Dutch Design Foundation Premsela</a> organised 'For the common good', a conference around <a href="http://www.stedelijk.nl/oc2/page.asp?PageID=1475">Pierre Bernhard</a> (Grapus, Ne Pas Plier), who has been awarded the prestigious Erasmus price.

Design critic Hugues Boekraad introduced the work of Bernard with a plea for reflexive design; in his perspective designers have the responsibility to build bridges between the private and the public, between the particular and the general. Communication between government and citizens, cultural production, cultural heritage... Pierre Bernhard than showed early Grapus designs for and with the French communist party, followed by a more recent Ne Pas Plier project on children's human rights. From the third presentation by <a href="http://www.thonik.nl/">Thonik</a> (Thomas Widdershoven), a radical re-design of the Dutch <a href="http://www.sp.nl">SP</a> (socialist party), it was clear that times have changed. Using advertising strategies in bold red typography, and avoiding complicated messages, their design can only be measured in terms of succes. <a href="http://www.vandejong.nl/">VanDeJong</a> ended the afternoon with presenting a long term educational project <a href="http://www.anno.nl/">Anno</a>, aimed at making Dutch history accessible for everyone. "It doesn't teach but it gives a fun experience".

<img id="image149" src="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/logo_sp.gif" alt="log SP old" /> <strong>&nbsp;&nbsp;= </strong> <img id="image154" src="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/tomaat.png" alt="tomaat.png" />
<!--more-->
HB = Hugues Boekraad
PB = Pierre Bernard
DK = Dingeman Kuilman (managing director of Premsela)
CS = Carine de Smedt (design theoretician (?))
TW = Thomas Widdershoven
PJ = Pjotr de Jong

(caution - these are my notes -- not a transcription!)

DK: Piere, could you respond to the work of Thonik and VanDeJong... do you think there are differences, comparisons to make?
PB: It is hard to compare -- time is different -- what we did than is today not possible; we need to think quick, and we risk not to think deep enough. To go to the symbol quickly is necessary -- we are under a lot of narration (tv, advertisement) -- with these kind of images you can stop those stories and start to think for yourself.
DK: It seems public and private communication strategies are exchangeable. Is that true?
PB: I think it was always like that... what we as Grapus tried to do (but those were different times) was to develop ideas between one election and another. The goal was not only to win. Deep politics is not only about electing people in parliament, but also to understand what the reality of the everyday is about.
HB: In the campaign for the SP I think there is an absence of floating images. It is all typography and code with a symbol added. I like the symbol, turning the tomato from a negative symbol into a positive one... but in Grapus' work you'll always find a zone of free imagination. A space to identify with. This is not possible with symbols; those images are already stabilized.
TW: I agree with both your analyses... Now I will need to convince my client to want this too ... 
PB: Well, I think the general aestetics of the red ... it is red and white and forms ... functions in a way as a floating image too.
HB: I was referring to the horizontal quality of the communication. PB works with reciprocal exchange -- where the language of the city hall and the political party are mixed -- to bring in the language of the people you are talking to, in to the rhetoric of the design. Using the rhetoric of ordinary life.
DK: Is it political work?
CS: It is, all of the work always is. It is a great demonstration of the power of graphic design ... what it can be. Cultural commissions are currently treated like commercial. It is obvious that there is a difference between commercial and public commission. The question is... is the public domain not everywhere? If everything is politic... can we equal it to the every day life... can we apply those ideas to every field? 
PJ: Everyone should take their responsibility... not just the government. This time of receding governments is a great chance for other institutions to play a role.
DK: is there a difference between commercial and 'public' clients
PJ: Most of our clients are public institutions ... our way of working is the same... we are looking for the real message... 
HB: I do not agree. In a democracy the difference between public and private is holy. The public domain is the space of the law. The space of the common, of language. It requires a different way of working. In Holland ... the succes of graphic design ... developed in state owned corporations. Did they really differ in logic, aestetics? are they different? Or did it introduce the management models of the private sphere in public institutions... made way for later privatization of the public sphere? On a theoretical and practical level you need to make a sharp distinction.
DK: what is the relevance of dialogue for a graphic designer?
PB: Communication is a dialogue. With mass media... you need a lot of technique... and the main actor is the market. Even when they work with a graphic designer... it can be difficult. They think as commercial people ... as if their visitors are clients ... they are sure it is a good model. It is only for people who know. It is important to believe in the public, that they are able to understand messages and to feel the same things as we are able to feel. In commercial terms, the only possible response is buying, not a dialogue.
DK: How do you balance dialogue and propaganda?
CS: in France we need to look at the great models we had. To understand the process... society has changed... we have to find new ways... we must fight for graphic design to exist ... a thinking form of graphic design
TH: we always tried to put commercial values in the cultural... branding, but playing with it. We try to bring in cultural values in 'commercial' fields. If the propaganda works, than you create space to play.
PB: In the Netherlands you have a chance to make things happen, because you have a graphic design culture... we had great postermakers once... but advertising is dominant since the 70's. What you describe ... the equilibrium between propaganda and information ... it is in fact graphic design as Popart.]]></content:encoded>
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		<wp:post_id>151</wp:post_id>
		<wp:post_date><![CDATA[2006-11-25 00:08:53]]></wp:post_date>
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		<title>Watch this thread: Free Font Manifesto</title>
		<link>http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/texts/watch-this-thread-2</link>
		<pubDate>Sat, 25 Nov 2006 01:14:23 +0000</pubDate>
		<dc:creator><![CDATA[Femke]]></dc:creator>
		<guid isPermaLink="false">http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=155</guid>
		<description></description>
		<content:encoded><![CDATA[Ellen Lupton's question: <strong><a href="http://www.blogger.com/comment.g?blogID=34853894&amp;postID=115909195561855648">Why would a typeface designer want to give a font away?</a></strong> sparked off a series of comments worth reading. The discussion shows how much typographers struggle with 'open source' as an idea. It makes you wonder why Lupton decided to ask 'to give away a font' and not 'to share source' - the latter probably fits the typographic spirit better. A few samples:
<blockquote>"(...) this movement you start up has the potential to make look bad and selfish the designers who wish not to participate, possibly because they are independents and just can't afford to give away months, sometimes years of hard labour. I don't want to sound pedantic, but I think your initiative could use a fair amount of discretion, because this possibly has already done harm to the type community without you even realising it."</blockquote>
<blockquote>"To suggest that the world would be better if Latin "graphic designers" had more free fonts to choose from not only makes it seem like misers are in control here, but it also makes it clear that good thinkers do not exist out there."</blockquote>
<blockquote>"The whole P2P community is breeding a generation of lazy idiots who think they can get anything for free. May it be music or typefaces. Why buy good type, when you can get it for free."</blockquote>
but also:
<blockquote>"To say that an "Open Source" font initiative would put designers out of business, or dilute the value of legitimate 'commercial' fonts is simply trying to lock the barn after the horses have long since left. Where have they been over the past twenty years?"</blockquote>
Read full thread <a href="http://www.blogger.com/comment.g?blogID=34853894&amp;postID=115909195561855648">here</a>]]></content:encoded>
		<excerpt:encoded><![CDATA[]]></excerpt:encoded>
		<wp:post_id>155</wp:post_id>
		<wp:post_date><![CDATA[2006-11-25 02:14:23]]></wp:post_date>
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		<category domain="author" nicename="femke"><![CDATA[Femke]]></category>
		<category domain="post_tag" nicename="libre-fonts"><![CDATA[Libre Fonts]]></category>
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		<title>Convert tiff to transparent PNG</title>
		<link>http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/tools/convert-tiff-to-transparent-png</link>
		<pubDate>Sun, 26 Nov 2006 16:39:26 +0000</pubDate>
		<dc:creator><![CDATA[nicolas]]></dc:creator>
		<guid isPermaLink="false">http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=156</guid>
		<description></description>
		<content:encoded><![CDATA[Since long, we wished to write about scripting for image creation and manipulation. There are many reason why you would spend some time to do it. To resize a lot of images by hand can be a tedious task, or your software misses a component to achieve a particular result. Or you want to turn a web application into an image editor, etc.

<img id="image158" src="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/compare-trans.png" alt="From tiff to png" />

We will start with a modest example taken from a real life situation. We, Femke and Nicolas, are working on an illustration in Inkscape. For this illustration, we have scanned a lot of notes we have written on paper. The scanned images have been saved in tiff. We have imported them in Inkscape and started making the composition. Half-way we realise that it should be a lot more easier to work with the same images but saved as PNG with a transparent background. As there is 165 images to transform, to do it one by one in Gimp sounds just frightening. This is where the wonderful <a href="http://www.imagemagick.org/script/index.php">Imagemagick</a> software enters into play.
<!--more-->
Imagemagick is shipped with every major linux distribution or can easily be installed by the different package managers. It is also available on windows; and on MacosX via the Fink installer. Once there, Imagemagick gives you many tools to edit, resize, transform images. One of them is <em>convert</em> that takes a file in input and converts it into (nearly) any format. In our case, a simple conversion was not enough since we wanted also to transform the white colour into a transparent background. The following command did the trick for one image:
<blockquote>convert myfile.tiff -transparent white myfile.png</blockquote>
To apply it to a whole directory of images and keep the filenames, we had to include it in a small shell script:
<blockquote>
<pre>#!/bin/sh
for file in `ls | grep tiff`
do
  convert "$file" -fuzz 5% -transparent white "${file}.png"
  echo "writing ${file}.png"
done</pre>
</blockquote>
The <em>fuzz</em> parameter makes it possible to give transparency to 'nearly-white' pixels.]]></content:encoded>
		<excerpt:encoded><![CDATA[]]></excerpt:encoded>
		<wp:post_id>156</wp:post_id>
		<wp:post_date><![CDATA[2006-11-26 17:39:26]]></wp:post_date>
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		<title>Who&#039;s Afraid of Adobe? - Not me, says the Mozilla foundation.</title>
		<link>http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/news/whos-afraid-of-adobe-not-me-says-the-mozilla-foundation</link>
		<pubDate>Sat, 09 Dec 2006 18:43:56 +0000</pubDate>
		<dc:creator><![CDATA[nicolas]]></dc:creator>
		<guid isPermaLink="false">http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=159</guid>
		<description></description>
		<content:encoded><![CDATA[As we <a href="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?page_id=2">already mentioned</a> in this blog, Adobe owns many of the (proprietary) tools used by designers nowadays: Indesign, Photoshop, Illustrator and after having acquired Macromedia, it also owns Dreamweaver, Flash, Director, etc. Monopoly rhymes with monoculture.

<img id="image160" src="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/endoflife.png" alt="End of life for the SVG player" />

However, Adobe has not always been the enemy of free formats. A recent example being the <a href="http://www.adobe.com/svg/viewer/install/">viewer for SVG</a> they released when Flash was still a product from a competitor. <a href="http://hritcu.wordpress.com/2005/04/20/will-adobe-still-support-svg/">Logically</a> the support for the SVG viewer is now discontinued, Flash having become an asset of the company. <a href="http://www.adobe.com/svg/eol.html">End of life</a>.

<!--more-->

A complementary explanation could be that the SVG format is also read natively within a major open-source browser, firefox. Who needs a <a href="http://www.mail-archive.com/svg-developers@yahoogroups.com/msg10022.html">plugin anymore</a>?
If we applaud the development of the SVG support within firefox, we regret that the softwares that have been developed specifically for the <a href="http://www.mail-archive.com/svg-developers@yahoogroups.com/msg10011.html">functionnalities</a> added to the Adobe's SVG plugin may end with the software itself or will need to be rewritten. As the source code for the SVG player has not been published under a free license, we end up in a paradox: the programmers that wrote code for the functionalities specific to the Adobe's player chose SVG because it was free and open, but the player was itself a black box. And now, part of this code will be locked in this box because the same functionalities are not present in the firefox implementation. The Adobe viewer will be removed from the download area of adobe.com and the license doesn't allow for redistribution.

Why wouldn't Adobe donate the code of its SVG player to firefox? Wouldn't it be better than to simply drop it? An alliance between proprietary software giant and one of the open source biggest achievement may seem odd. But it is already happening for another product and it makes the news. Adobe announced it would donate the code of its javascript engine, under the name <a href="http://www.mozilla.org/projects/tamarin/faq.html">Tamarin</a>, to the Mozilla foundation that is behind firefox. This reflects the renewed interest of the company for the open source software. What Cnet.com calls a "<a href="http://news.com.com/Adobe+dipping+toes+into+desktop+Linux+waters/2100-7344_3-5435397.html">quiet effort to become more involved with desktop Linux</a>".

Contrarily to what has been said here and there, Adobe is not giving the code for the flash player to firefox but an important component that will help the open source browser to interpret more efficiently the javascript code and therefore boost the Ajax development.

From <a href="http://weblogs.macromedia.com/jd/archives/2006/11/tamarin_comment.cfm" target="_blank">JD on EP</a>, a series of interesting comments:
<blockquote>Frank Hecker (Mozilla staffer) offers a great orientation to the Adobe engine and the collaboration, particularly oriented to those in the Mozilla community. "Note that Tamarin is not an open source version of the Flash player; it is simply the virtual machine embedded within Flash Player 9, and does not include all the other components that make up Flash (including the bits that display graphics and play music and video). Adobe will continue to develop and distribute the Flash player on its own as a product separate from Firefox itself... The current SpiderMonkey JavaScript engine (used in Firefox, etc.) will not be replaced, as it does more than just provide a virtual machine; rather the Tamarin code will be integrated into SpiderMonkey. On compilers, the current SpiderMonkey engine can convert JavaScript to byte code, but does not have the ability to convert byte code to native machine instructions; this is a major feature that Tamarin provides... Not only do we gain an important new piece of technology that's critical to our products, we and Adobe both gain the benefit of being able to more closely work together on ECMAScript language technology and avoid unnecessary duplication of efforts; this in turn will allow both the Mozilla project and Adobe to put more resources into other areas important for future innovations." [via Mike Potter]</blockquote>
To summarize:
<blockquote>So this has nothing to do with putting Flash into Firefox. Firefox users will still require the Flash plugin to run SWFs. But contributing a high-performance virtual machine for a type-checked, object-oriented language is still a big deal!</blockquote>
<blockquote>"AJAX in Flash, with a Web 2.0 hype engine. May god have mercy on us all."</blockquote>
To end this post about Adobe and open source software, it is still worthy to recap some info about the alternatives to produce flash movies with open source tools:

Open source flash on linux:
<a href="http://osflash.org/linux?s=linux">http://osflash.org/linux?s=linux</a>

Flash from PHP with Ming:
<a href="http://www16.brinkster.com/gazb/ming/index.html">http://www16.brinkster.com/gazb/ming/index.html</a>

And last but not least, to throw an eye on this article based on an interview with Paul Betlem, senior director of engineering for Adobe, who explains 'Why Flash 9 for Linux is taking so long':
<a href="http://applications.linux.com/article.pl?sid=06/11/21/2138216&amp;from=rss">http://applications.linux.com/article.pl?sid=06/11/21/2138216&amp;from=rss</a>

But why you would use open source tools to lock your software in a proprietary format will be the subject of another post.

Thanks to <a href="http://www.constantvzw.com/cn_core/guests/g2.php?&amp;var_in=314">Peter Westenberg</a> to have sent me precious informations.]]></content:encoded>
		<excerpt:encoded><![CDATA[]]></excerpt:encoded>
		<wp:post_id>159</wp:post_id>
		<wp:post_date><![CDATA[2006-12-09 19:43:56]]></wp:post_date>
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		<wp:post_name><![CDATA[whos-afraid-of-adobe-not-me-says-the-mozilla-foundation]]></wp:post_name>
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		<wp:comment>
			<wp:comment_id>889</wp:comment_id>
			<wp:comment_author><![CDATA[Towards]]></wp:comment_author>
			<wp:comment_author_email><![CDATA[]]></wp:comment_author_email>
			<wp:comment_author_url>http://ibai.all2all.org/blog/wordpress/?p=39</wp:comment_author_url>
			<wp:comment_author_IP><![CDATA[62.58.108.14]]></wp:comment_author_IP>
			<wp:comment_date><![CDATA[2006-12-12 21:32:54]]></wp:comment_date>
			<wp:comment_date_gmt><![CDATA[2006-12-12 20:32:54]]></wp:comment_date_gmt>
			<wp:comment_content><![CDATA[<strong>Carto.net, scalable vector graphics...</strong>

Un pointeur vers un site de cartographes qui s&#8217;intéressent aux outils interactifs et particulièrement à l&#8217;implémentation du standard SVG (Scalable Vector Graphics). Ils et elles ne se contentent pas d&#8217;analyse mais mettent aussi la...]]></wp:comment_content>
			<wp:comment_approved><![CDATA[1]]></wp:comment_approved>
			<wp:comment_type><![CDATA[trackback]]></wp:comment_type>
			<wp:comment_parent>0</wp:comment_parent>
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	</item>
	<item>
		<title>I want a green apple</title>
		<link>http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/news/i-want-a-green-apple</link>
		<pubDate>Mon, 11 Dec 2006 00:58:10 +0000</pubDate>
		<dc:creator><![CDATA[Femke]]></dc:creator>
		<guid isPermaLink="false">http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=162</guid>
		<description></description>
		<content:encoded><![CDATA[Well, technically not open-source related... but I think this campaign deserves all designers' attention. In a nice mock of Apple's iLife design + writing, Greenpeace reminds us that not all that is wireless comes without footprint. Calling all bloggers, taggers, social bookmarkers and other <em>cool</em> people to the rescue, Greenpeace thinks they might convince Apple to change their policy on toxic waste, production and short product cycle:

<a href="http://www.greenmyapple.org/"><img id="image161" src="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/apple150x60.jpg" alt="apple150x60.jpg" /></a>

<a href="http://www.greenmyapple.org/"><strong>http://www.greenmyapple.org/</strong></a>

More in-depth information on computers and toxic waste by the <a href="http://svtc.etoxics.org/">Sillicon Valley Toxic Waste Coalition</a>.]]></content:encoded>
		<excerpt:encoded><![CDATA[]]></excerpt:encoded>
		<wp:post_id>162</wp:post_id>
		<wp:post_date><![CDATA[2006-12-11 01:58:10]]></wp:post_date>
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	<item>
		<title>Unlock + collect for output</title>
		<link>http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/tools/collect-for-output</link>
		<pubDate>Mon, 11 Dec 2006 01:29:17 +0000</pubDate>
		<dc:creator><![CDATA[Femke]]></dc:creator>
		<guid isPermaLink="false">http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=164</guid>
		<description></description>
		<content:encoded><![CDATA[The same illustration that got us to post about <a href="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=156">image scripting</a>, also brought up an interesting discovery plus a feature/plug-in for Inkscape.

<a class="imagelink" title="constant_web20.jpg" href="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/constant_web20.jpg"><img id="image166" src="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/constant_web20_th.jpg" alt="constant_web20_th.jpg" /></a>
<small>Detail of illustration for Mute Magazine. <a href="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/constant_web20.jpg">Click to view .jpg</a> or <a href="http://www.constant.irisnet.be/~constant/snelting/web4.0.zip">download complete zipped .svg file + images</a></small>

<strong>Lock layer</strong>
It is often helpful to lock an object (in this case the glow in the background), so that when you move things around, you do not have to worry about whether it stays at the right place. Quickly done with Inkscape, but unfortunately not as easily undone. The only way to unlock, is to open up the document in an editor, look for the line describing the locked object, and then delete the line: <code>sodipidi:insensitive</code>. Pfff...

<strong>Collect for output</strong>
Inkscape does not embed images, but links to them. It is therefore fast to work with (especially when using many images and layers as is the case with this illustration) but not easy when you have to send out the file to a printer or someone else - there is no way to check whether one of the images is missing.

Pim Snel <a href="http://facility.lingewoud.nl/hacks/inkscape_save_as_zip/">wrote an extension</a> to collect all bitmaps, create relative links to them in the Inkscape document and zip everything up in one go. Wonderful! A description of how to use the script at <a href="http://">Jakub 'jimmac' Steiner's weblog</a>.]]></content:encoded>
		<excerpt:encoded><![CDATA[]]></excerpt:encoded>
		<wp:post_id>164</wp:post_id>
		<wp:post_date><![CDATA[2006-12-11 02:29:17]]></wp:post_date>
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		<category domain="author" nicename="femke"><![CDATA[Femke]]></category>
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		<wp:comment>
			<wp:comment_id>883</wp:comment_id>
			<wp:comment_author><![CDATA[tom]]></wp:comment_author>
			<wp:comment_author_email><![CDATA[hicks.kingtom@googlemail.com]]></wp:comment_author_email>
			<wp:comment_author_url></wp:comment_author_url>
			<wp:comment_author_IP><![CDATA[195.137.54.92]]></wp:comment_author_IP>
			<wp:comment_date><![CDATA[2006-12-12 00:40:01]]></wp:comment_date>
			<wp:comment_date_gmt><![CDATA[2006-12-11 23:40:01]]></wp:comment_date_gmt>
			<wp:comment_content><![CDATA[well, inkscape does have lock layer, you just have to insure that you have split you work up into diffrent objects (see the layer menu/ Ctrl-Shift-L/ mini layer editor in the bottem status bar)]]></wp:comment_content>
			<wp:comment_approved><![CDATA[1]]></wp:comment_approved>
			<wp:comment_type><![CDATA[]]></wp:comment_type>
			<wp:comment_parent>0</wp:comment_parent>
			<wp:comment_user_id>0</wp:comment_user_id>
		</wp:comment>
		<wp:comment>
			<wp:comment_id>887</wp:comment_id>
			<wp:comment_author><![CDATA[piet]]></wp:comment_author>
			<wp:comment_author_email><![CDATA[piet@hotmail.nl]]></wp:comment_author_email>
			<wp:comment_author_url></wp:comment_author_url>
			<wp:comment_author_IP><![CDATA[85.28.71.229]]></wp:comment_author_IP>
			<wp:comment_date><![CDATA[2006-12-12 16:15:17]]></wp:comment_date>
			<wp:comment_date_gmt><![CDATA[2006-12-12 15:15:17]]></wp:comment_date_gmt>
			<wp:comment_content><![CDATA[wauw mooi plaatje
super die engeltjes en in het groot doet ie het goed,
misschien een goede achtergrond voor dit blog?
p]]></wp:comment_content>
			<wp:comment_approved><![CDATA[1]]></wp:comment_approved>
			<wp:comment_type><![CDATA[]]></wp:comment_type>
			<wp:comment_parent>0</wp:comment_parent>
			<wp:comment_user_id>0</wp:comment_user_id>
		</wp:comment>
		<wp:comment>
			<wp:comment_id>45082</wp:comment_id>
			<wp:comment_author><![CDATA[ana]]></wp:comment_author>
			<wp:comment_author_email><![CDATA[ana.isabelc@gmail.com]]></wp:comment_author_email>
			<wp:comment_author_url></wp:comment_author_url>
			<wp:comment_author_IP><![CDATA[117.240.92.53]]></wp:comment_author_IP>
			<wp:comment_date><![CDATA[2009-11-25 13:14:15]]></wp:comment_date>
			<wp:comment_date_gmt><![CDATA[2009-11-25 11:14:15]]></wp:comment_date_gmt>
			<wp:comment_content><![CDATA[Hello,

I just checked the links to the Pim Snel extension and it not up anymore.
I found the script here:
http://www.pdf.umb.sk/elearn/ECDL/grafika/inkscape/share/extensions/svg_and_media_zip_output.py]]></wp:comment_content>
			<wp:comment_approved><![CDATA[1]]></wp:comment_approved>
			<wp:comment_type><![CDATA[]]></wp:comment_type>
			<wp:comment_parent>0</wp:comment_parent>
			<wp:comment_user_id>0</wp:comment_user_id>
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	</item>
	<item>
		<title>Tools of the trade</title>
		<link>http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/typo/tools-of-the-trade</link>
		<pubDate>Mon, 11 Dec 2006 14:40:41 +0000</pubDate>
		<dc:creator><![CDATA[Femke]]></dc:creator>
		<guid isPermaLink="false">http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=168</guid>
		<description></description>
		<content:encoded><![CDATA[<em>Conversation with Ricardo Lafuente</em>

<strong>Ricardo Lafuente</strong> looks at the way typography, (open source) tools and design economies feed off and into each other. In a few weeks he will publish his text here for you to download. In the mean time, read a few of the ideas we exchanged by e-mail. Comments are of course more than welcome!

<!--more-->
<em>RL: I am interested in the way designer's tools, particularly the typographer's, from letterpress to software, have influenced/defined the whole production system.</em> 

FS: I think you're right to start thinking about the (r)evolution of type tools, by looking at the interrelation between tools for designing (digitizing?) type, systems for their distribution, and tools for output. It means looking at the development of Fontographer, of typefoundries, but also at the history of Postscript. Although all of these elements are intimately connected, each of the tools in the chain is operated upon by other professionals with different aims.

In Pandora's Hope (1999), Bruno Latour argues that objects and subjects can not be viewed as separate from each other, in other words -- we have been shaped by our artifacts as much as we have shaped them:

<blockquote>Who or what is responsible for the act of killing? Is the gun no more than a piece of mediating technology? ... Which of them, the gun or the citizen, is the actor in this situation? Someone else (a citizen-gun, a gun-citizen) ... You are a different person with the gun in your hand; the gun is different with you holding it.
</blockquote>

<em>RL: Besides a historical reference as to the evolution of those tools, I also want to delve upon how the availability/cost/dimensions of the design tools actually shape the design activity.</em>

The main 'cost' in producing typography is time; time needed for development, for proofing and for apprenticeship. Now the price of tools such as Fontographer Fontforge is relatively low or even gratis, digital proofing systems are widely available and there's other materials to design in/with than carving marble, lead molds or photographic systems... all that's left is human hours spent on drawing a typeface or tuning kerning tables.

In that way, the process of developing a typeface is in some aspects similar to developing software and I think typographers should seriously look at open source developments, because it could help in imagining another future than erasure or control. Sharing the work could actually work for typography.

<em>RL: What is the role of those tools in shaping the market and professional relationships (e.g. the way availability/cost/size of tools helped change the environment from craft to commodity)?</em>

FS: I do not think typographic craft has become commodified; the craft has changed and the commodity has changed with it. Again, if you think of type as software, the shift makes sense if you parallel it to the way commodity functions in software (Microsoft vs. MySQL: not that the latter is necessarily more sympathetic, but to base profit on service seems to make more sense than to base profit on distrust)

<em>RL: Since Gutenberg, drawing and printing tools have progressively become more accessible and less bulky. Today, free software means we have access to free tools with no larger a physical footprint as the computer that hosts them. Rid of its physical and economical restraints, what is a design tool today, and more importantly, what can it be? What implications does this have to the whole design field?</em>

With print-to-plate systems, or the  way screen typography is (hopefully) developing, you could say that also printing is close to being incorporated. To me the most exciting effects of this convergence of tools, is that in theory design, distribution and use are melting into each other. It could potentially radically change the way typo(graphic) practice works. A designer is not necessarily an authority and the user becomes potentially more than a consumer.

<em>RL: I also found an interesting concept that can help sustain the issue of de-physicalisation (horrible term) of the tools - Radovan Richta's concept of technological evolution and its consequences (particularly, the importance of the switch from manual to mental labour): http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Technological_evolution</em>

FS: I am not so sure whether this shift from physical to mental labour should be taken that literally when it comes to software for (type)designers, and whether de-physicalisation is a useful term. Someone like Katherine Hayles writes about the embodiment, and materialization of knowledge beyond the physical in ways that seem to link to the practice of design. In <em>Abstracting Craft: The Practiced Digital Hand</em>, Malcolm Mccullough describes how tools shape our perspective, i.e. how physical and mental work inform each other:

<blockquote>Tool usage simultaneously involves direct sensation, provides a channel for creative will, and affirms a commitment to practice. The latter is quite important: only practice produces the most lasting and satisfying form of knowledge.</blockquote>

and later on:

<blockquote>A tool directs your attention. Its function becomes your focus: as the saying goes, when you hold a hammer, all the world looks like nails.</blockquote>

(Or should we say with Latour that when you hold a gun, everyone looks like potential victim... ;-))

Physicality shifts place, but we still have bodies: hands operating keyboards, trackpads; eyes that judge, limbs suffering from RSI. To often, craft is made synonymous with 'handmade' and software ubiqutous – in short: craft is not solely manual, and software is not body-less

Maybe those two truisms could help rethink craft beyond the patriarchal master-apprentice system that is still en vogue with typographers. The problem with type-design is, that it is often thought of as signature; writing in purified form. But in a networked world this cannot be the only way to do type. Typographers, while using digital tools for longer than most of us, have a hard time to let go of a closed model of authorship, and a hierarchical approach to teaching. I am not sure why it the stereotypical image of the lonely, ascetic, male typographer fighting against all odds for the survival of an undervalued secret craft seems so necessary to be maintained.

<em>RL: Is the market model and the typographer/designer's activity accounting for this evolution, or is it lagging behind? And what would be a feasible alternative that could account for authorship safeguards? And why should it be open?</em>

FS: I am convinced that a more progressive form of licensing, and an open source approach to the development of typefaces is absolutely necessary for typography to survive. The amount of policing necessary to check illegal copies would be absurd. It is impossible but most of all undesirable to technically protect typefaces; this form of Digital Rights Management will come at the cost of typographies fluidity and ability to be truly embedded.

Also, typefaces are getting more complicated now since they are often shared over multiple computers with different locales and operating systems. So it seems important to engage in a collaboration with people across borders to continue to develop typefaces fit for todays texts (I do not think we have enough typography already!). Think about networked typography, dynamic type, print on demand... When the bezier curves and kerning tables are made available to be studied, adjusted, discussed by communities of people I think this could mean a whole new life for an old discipline.]]></content:encoded>
		<excerpt:encoded><![CDATA[]]></excerpt:encoded>
		<wp:post_id>168</wp:post_id>
		<wp:post_date><![CDATA[2006-12-11 15:40:41]]></wp:post_date>
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		<wp:post_name><![CDATA[tools-of-the-trade]]></wp:post_name>
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		<category domain="author" nicename="femke"><![CDATA[Femke]]></category>
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		<wp:comment>
			<wp:comment_id>48000</wp:comment_id>
			<wp:comment_author><![CDATA[Future Tools &raquo; Blog Archive &raquo; Back to the future]]></wp:comment_author>
			<wp:comment_author_email><![CDATA[]]></wp:comment_author_email>
			<wp:comment_author_url>http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/lgru/blog/?p=1</wp:comment_author_url>
			<wp:comment_author_IP><![CDATA[79.99.202.57]]></wp:comment_author_IP>
			<wp:comment_date><![CDATA[2011-07-08 17:33:35]]></wp:comment_date>
			<wp:comment_date_gmt><![CDATA[2011-07-08 15:33:35]]></wp:comment_date_gmt>
			<wp:comment_content><![CDATA[[...] Tools of the trade. Conversation with Ricardo Lafuente (2006) linklink [...]]]></wp:comment_content>
			<wp:comment_approved><![CDATA[1]]></wp:comment_approved>
			<wp:comment_type><![CDATA[pingback]]></wp:comment_type>
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	</item>
	<item>
		<title>In Print</title>
		<link>http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/works/in-print</link>
		<pubDate>Wed, 03 Jan 2007 10:48:31 +0000</pubDate>
		<dc:creator><![CDATA[Femke]]></dc:creator>
		<guid isPermaLink="false">http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=173</guid>
		<description></description>
		<content:encoded><![CDATA[<a class="imagelink" title="p1000114.JPG" href="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/p1000114.JPG"><img id="image171" src="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/p1000114.thumbnail.JPG" alt="p1000114.JPG" /></a><a class="imagelink" title="p1000116.JPG" href="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/p1000116.JPG"> <img id="image172" src="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/p1000116.thumbnail.JPG" alt="p1000116.JPG" /></a>
<small>Contribution by <a href="http://www.geuzen.org">De Geuzen</a> in <a href="http://www.skor.nl/article-2883-en.html">Open magazine</a> about <em>Travail Mobile</em>, a workshop for <a href="http://www.stormy-weather.be/digitales-2006/?lang=en">Digitales</a>.</small>

After the<a href="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=127"> Crash Test-post</a> a few month ago, finally pictures of the result!

Thanks to Peter Linnell (one of the main Scribus developers), who after I posted about some <a href="http://nashi.altmuehlnet.de/pipermail/scribus/2006-September/019932.html">Postscript troubles</a> to the Scribus mailinglist, came to the rescue on IRC.]]></content:encoded>
		<excerpt:encoded><![CDATA[]]></excerpt:encoded>
		<wp:post_id>173</wp:post_id>
		<wp:post_date><![CDATA[2007-01-03 11:48:31]]></wp:post_date>
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		<category domain="author" nicename="femke"><![CDATA[Femke]]></category>
		<category domain="post_tag" nicename="scribus"><![CDATA[Scribus]]></category>
		<category domain="category" nicename="works"><![CDATA[Works]]></category>
		<wp:postmeta>
			<wp:meta_key><![CDATA[_edit_last]]></wp:meta_key>
			<wp:meta_value><![CDATA[15]]></wp:meta_value>
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			<wp:meta_key><![CDATA[related_posts]]></wp:meta_key>
			<wp:meta_value><![CDATA[a:2:{s:4:"time";i:1223519918;s:13:"related_posts";s:1268:"<ul class="related_post"><li><a href="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=547" title="Print, flip, and turn">Print, flip, and turn</a></li><li><a href="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=509" title="Vote for Scribus">Vote for Scribus</a></li><li><a href="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=495" title=" We could save the term by using it"> We could save the term by using it</a></li><li><a href="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=411" title="In the pipeline">In the pipeline</a></li><li><a href="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=408" title="Summer of Code / Season of Usability">Summer of Code / Season of Usability</a></li><li><a href="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=309" title="Multiple pages with (linked) boxes in Scribus">Multiple pages with (linked) boxes in Scribus</a></li><li><a href="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=307" title="Mute: now available in Free Software">Mute: now available in Free Software</a></li><li><a href="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=300" title="Inconsolata">Inconsolata</a></li><li><a href="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=297" title="Questions and answers [update]">Questions and answers [update]</a></li><li><a href="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=291" title="CMYK overprint">CMYK overprint</a></li></ul>";}]]></wp:meta_value>
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		<title>FOSS and the Commercial Print World</title>
		<link>http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/texts/foss-and-the-commercial-print-world</link>
		<pubDate>Wed, 03 Jan 2007 11:28:44 +0000</pubDate>
		<dc:creator><![CDATA[Femke]]></dc:creator>
		<guid isPermaLink="false">http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=174</guid>
		<description></description>
		<content:encoded><![CDATA[Craig Bradney and Peter Linnell discuss the future of Free and Open Source Software for commercial printing:
<blockquote>Right now, I would say the biggest weakness from an FOSS point of view is there are few good high quality fonts. It is one of those areas which requires tremendous amounts of QA to make them reliable in the commercial print world. This is highlighted throughout our documentation.</blockquote>
(QA = <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quality_assurance">Quality Assurance</a> ;-))

Read the interview here: <a href="http://www.kde.me.uk/index.php?page=fosdem-interview-scribus">http://www.kde.me.uk/index.php?page...</a>]]></content:encoded>
		<excerpt:encoded><![CDATA[]]></excerpt:encoded>
		<wp:post_id>174</wp:post_id>
		<wp:post_date><![CDATA[2007-01-03 12:28:44]]></wp:post_date>
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		<wp:post_name><![CDATA[foss-and-the-commercial-print-world]]></wp:post_name>
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		<category domain="author" nicename="femke"><![CDATA[Femke]]></category>
		<category domain="post_tag" nicename="libre-fonts"><![CDATA[Libre Fonts]]></category>
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		<title>Watch this thread: The color of ideas</title>
		<link>http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/news/watch-this-thread-colors</link>
		<pubDate>Tue, 30 Jan 2007 02:21:34 +0000</pubDate>
		<dc:creator><![CDATA[Femke]]></dc:creator>
		<guid isPermaLink="false">http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=176</guid>
		<description></description>
		<content:encoded><![CDATA[<a class="imagelink" title="pantone.jpg" href="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/pantone.jpg"><img id="image178" src="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/pantone.thumbnail.jpg" alt="pantone.jpg" /></a>
A widely used proprietary color-system such as Pantone, obviously raises questions for Open Source graphic tools. Gregory Pittman writes:
<blockquote>* Obviously, no one, including Pantone, can copyright a color, and especially in these days where the RGB/CMYK color systems are freely usable -- ie, you can't put a claim on RGB color "ef9824".
* They <strong>can</strong> copyright the names and the connection with their inks.
* They want to control the ability of anyone to connect some other color system to Pantone names or inks. My guess is about all they can really do is attempt to keep you from using their color/ink name, as in "this matches Pantone Keepsake Lilac or Pantone 15-2705" (their current color of the day). Understandably they don't want someone else feeding off the system they have created.
* <em>What it really begs for is someone to establish another system (open of course) with its own names which might in some way link up to Pantone and other inks, with the attached disclaimer that no promise is made that this product exactly matches any proprietary color or ink.</em></blockquote>
<a href="http://nashi.altmuehlnet.de/pipermail/scribus/2007-January/022187.html">Read full thread here</a>]]></content:encoded>
		<excerpt:encoded><![CDATA[]]></excerpt:encoded>
		<wp:post_id>176</wp:post_id>
		<wp:post_date><![CDATA[2007-01-30 03:21:34]]></wp:post_date>
		<wp:post_date_gmt><![CDATA[2007-01-30 02:21:34]]></wp:post_date_gmt>
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		<title>Mute Magazine: open soon</title>
		<link>http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/news/mute-magazine-open-soon</link>
		<pubDate>Tue, 30 Jan 2007 09:11:17 +0000</pubDate>
		<dc:creator><![CDATA[Femke]]></dc:creator>
		<guid isPermaLink="false">http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=179</guid>
		<description></description>
		<content:encoded><![CDATA[<a class="imagelink" title="books.JPG" href="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/books.JPG"><img id="image181" src="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/books.thumbnail.JPG" alt="books.JPG" /></a>

<a href="http://www.metamute.org/">Mute Magazine</a> develops Open Source software, and has recently installed Ubuntu on all office machines. Now they want to move their lay-out away from QuarkXpress too.

Last week, Simon Worthington and Darron Broad from Mute came over to discuss the project. First of all we will need to make sure their original templates can be migrated to Scribus - with a little help of Python, this will hopefully not be such a big problem.

In parallel we started thinking about ways to connect Content Management Systems (<a href="http://drupal.org/">Drupal</a> in their case) to Scribus, so that part of the editing process can be eventually automated. Printing On Demand would not be far off from that -- exciting developments ahead.

But first things first: from the June 2007 issue onwards, with the help of the Open Source Publishing team, Mute will be entirely produced with free software. Mute will also make sure the project/process will be properly documented and fed back into the Scribus community.

Good news!]]></content:encoded>
		<excerpt:encoded><![CDATA[]]></excerpt:encoded>
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		<wp:post_date><![CDATA[2007-01-30 10:11:17]]></wp:post_date>
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		<title>Appropriation and Type - before and today</title>
		<link>http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/typo/appropriation-and-type-before-and-today</link>
		<pubDate>Wed, 31 Jan 2007 15:38:43 +0000</pubDate>
		<dc:creator><![CDATA[Ricardo]]></dc:creator>
		<guid isPermaLink="false">http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=183</guid>
		<description></description>
		<content:encoded><![CDATA[Appropriation has been a recurring and accepted strategy in defining typography as activity and business. We can pinpoint four cases where appropriation has definitely been key in defining landmarks in the history of type, not only aiding the breaking of technical and creative boundaries but also helping to question legal and moral ones.
 
We'll go on to briefly analyse the current situation in typography, focusing on the approach to the subject by corporations, users and designers. The current business model (digital foundries, font files with copyrights) is, as we'll argue, a remnant of a time where a typeface filled a whole drawer and fails to account for the necessary changes that the information age demands; we'll conclude with the definition of an essentially contradictory business model that has very strong stands against "font forging" and copyright issues, although it has historically - and now, more than ever - thrived on constant, and often uncredited, appropriation of ideas and designs. 

<!--more-->

<strong>1. Appropriation in type through history</strong>
<ul><li>The Gutenberg press </li>
	<li>Stanley Morison and Monotype</li>
	<li>Arial</li>
	<li>Segoe</li></ul>
<strong>2. The digital typography paradigm</strong>
<ul><li>Corporate type</li>
	<li>User type</li>
	<li>Designer type</li></ul>
<strong>3. Tweaking and reviving
4. Technology on arcane standards
5. What now
</strong>
<em>a. Notes
b. References
c. Online references</em>

<hr />

<strong>1. Appropriation in type through history</strong>

We could certainly identify many more instances of inspiration or downright copying of ideas in typography, but these four cases will suffice to demonstrate the different uses of copy, inspiration and appropriation in general. Our focus here will be on the issue of creative appropriation (inspiration) on one hand, and corporate business models and copyright issues (plagiarism) on the other.

<strong>i. The Gutenberg Press</strong>

In 1450, Johannes Gutenberg produced the first commercially viable model of his printing press, which was widely used for centuries until the advent of the Linotype machine, the first way to automate, though partially, the type setting and printing process.
Gutenberg's press was the result of the combination of five key methods and processes, three - possibly four - of which were not original:
<ul>
<li>The screw press, which was already used by the Greeks and Romans to process olive oil and wine.</li>
<li>Block printing, present in China since 594 AD. Gutenberg's innovation was to use metal cast types (instead of the Chinese traditional woodblock printing), although metal typecasting was already developed in Korea around 1230 AD.</li>
<li>Letter punches, which were a goldsmithing technique - Gutenberg was a goldsmith - used to engrave letters in metal pieces.</li>
<li>Letter replica casting, a method to quickly create new individual characters, along with a particular metal alloy that made for durable pieces. This method has been attributed to Gutenberg but recent studies shed doubts on this fact.</li>
<li>Metal-adherent ink, devised by Gutenberg.</li>
</ul>

This shows that originality is not a straightforward issue, in a time before copyrights existed (it was not before 1700 that the first copyright statute appeared in Britain), the protection of ideas could have changed the fate of this invention. the combination of methods made. What matters here is that they were combined in a way that made typography as we know it possible, and there seems to be absolutely no question to the legitimacy of this invention, which was made possible by appropriating previous methods and processes. Gutenberg's model of printing stood firm for centuries until the Linotype machine introduced partial automation of the printing process.

<strong>ii. Stanley Morison and Monotype</strong>
 
On 1886, the Linotype machine began to be produced by the Mergenthaler Printing Co. in the United States. It wouldn't take long, though (a year) for Lanston Monotype to begin production of their own fully-automated typesetting machine, devised by Tolbert Lanston.

In 1922, <strong>Stanley Morison</strong> was appointed as typographic advisor of the Monotype Corporation (the British branch of the Philadephia company), a post he would keep until 1967. The Monotype Corporation built an extensive catalog of cuts made by Morison from classic references, such as Bodoni, Bembo, Baskerville, and several others. These revivals helped to bring general interest to the old masters' works, besides consisting of a general market strategy to try to push up the value of the Monotype machine - the faces available would definitely determine the decision of a buyer who fancies a particular style, and thus the Monotype Corporation had no qualms about recruiting all the classics (which were in the public domain).

It is tremendously unfair, though, to portray Morison as a hijacker - he was one of the hallmarks of 20th century type, being responsible for the creation of Times New Roman and hugely influencing the field of typography to the present day by the efforts he dedicated to bringing the classics to the general public - legitimately appropriating other designs. Without Morison's endeavour, our legacy would certainly be poorer today.

<strong>iii. Arial, Monotype and Microsoft</strong>

1982 is the year in which the <strong>Arial</strong> typeface was released by Monotype Typography (Monotype Corporation's type design division). Designed by Robin Nicholas and Patricia Saunders, this typeface had a remarkable issue. Not only does it have obvious similarities to other modern sans-serifs (sharing features with Helvetica, Univers and Akzidenz Grotesk), it exactly mirrors the glyph width tables from Helvetica, which is the data included in a font file that describes each character's dimensions. An exact match that gives little chance for coincidence. 

Microsoft licensed Arial from Monotype instead of the more expensive Helvetica, and in 1990 it was bundled with Microsoft Windows 3.1. It has been a staple of Windows systems until today. This is a specific case where a typeface was chosen not by its genuine creative and/or practical value but by external reasons, in this case backed by financial motives. Type designers are almost unanimous in shunning Arial as a lesser typeface: it is notably absent from Robert Bringhurst's typeface selection in <em>The Elements of Typographic Style</em> (the current all-around reference on type design from the designer's perspective), and is also only mentioned as a passing remark on Robin Nicholas's entry on the typographic encyclopedic survey by Friedl et al[1]. This is pretty much a clear notion of the type designers' community on the Arial issue; it's also worth noting that there has been, however, no attempt to replace Arial as a standard font in operating systems[2].

In strict legal/copyright terms, it's appropriate to compare the Arial case to a cheating student who argues that the fact that his exam has exact passages from his nearest classmates' exams owes to coincidence. It's reasonable to argue that borrowing from three sources rather than just one does not make the situation more acceptable. 

So Arial stands in mixed principles: the type community is almost unanimous in calling shenanigans, but it still made its way to our current operating systems despite that fact - it never met any legal actions.

<strong>iv. Segoe</strong>

In early 2006, Microsoft announced a significant effort to dignify type design in their upcoming Vista operating system: six type designers - Lucas de Groot and Robin Nicholas figuring among them - were comissioned to design appropriate typefaces for screen and print. The result was six very attractive fonts that not only could appeal to general uses by less savvy people, but also soothe the type designers' fancy.

Another font included in Vista is Segoe, a revival of Frutiger Next (which in turn is a revival of Frutiger) that Microsoft licensed from Monotype and altered. It's not the first case in which Adrian Frutiger's work has been remade: Adobe's Myriad and Apple's Podium Sans also bear a striking resemblance to Frutiger's structure. When Microsoft  registered Segoe in Europe in 2004, Linotype sued for copyright infringement since European law, unlike the American one, recognises the rights to font designs (although patent law is often used to circumvent this legal void in the US). 

The most significant fact is that Microsoft based their defense not on the issue of originality - stating the differences between Segoe and Frutiger Next, but on the fact that Linotype wasn't selling its typeface in Europe when the request was filed. This situation could very well be interpreted as an admission by Microsoft's part that the font in fact owes credit to Frutiger's design. 

This case becomes all more revealing in that it's a high-profile and current example of an attempt to settle the authenticity of a type design in courts. Unlike Arial, it didn't sneak past the critics and found serious hurdles while Microsoft tried to implement it in its Windows OS. A verdict on the Segoe case is expected in early 2007.


<strong>2. The digital typography paradigm</strong>

Typography, and type design in particular, is historically defined by a constant recursion of past themes and trends, be it as inspiration - revivals - or as a way to question them - as in post-modern type examples, such as <a href="http://www.emigre.com">Emigre</a>'s or <a href="http://www.davidcarsondesign.com">David Carson</a>'s work. Nevertheless, modern designs still owe heavily (with or without credit) to a tradition of arts and crafts spanning five centuries. 

Meanwhile, on the last 20 years, the type world hasn't ceased discussing the issue of rights and plagiarism, a discussion that was sparked by the digital revolution and the introduction of the personal computer as an all-purpose design and production tool. This shift implied that the tools used in typography and book production ceased to be the sole domain of type makers, printers and book publishers - the only ones that could afford the initial investment of a type foundry, workshop or printing press and manage it effectively. Designing type soon became cheaper and cheaper, as the physical footprint of the new tools gradually became smaller and smaller. Nowadays, a computer and a printer can do in minutes what a huge phototypesetting equipment would have taken a lot of time, effort and money to produce 10 years ago. 

The most important effect of the digital revolution in type design is that typefaces became fonts - a radical change in that they were no more lead blocks but data, files that describe how each glyph should be drawn on screen or on a printer. <a href="http://fontforge.sf.net">FontForge</a>, a free software solution to type design, was released in 2004, doing away with any software costs involved in font creation and editing, meaning the only overhead for a type design business would be a PC, paper, drawing tools, an image-capture device (scanner or camera) and eventually an Internet connection. This change has massive repercussions in the whole typography market: now type design wouldn't, in theory, require any kind of intermediaries between the typographer/designer and its audience. Reality developed otherwise, as we will see from three standpoints in typography usage and creation.

<strong>i. Corporate Type</strong>

The digital revolution made a deep re-definition of most areas of study possible. We will show, though, that the field of typography has been lagging behind when it comes to taking advantage of the digital medium. Moreover, the corporate business model has failed to account for the specific needs and features of information technology, sticking to an artificial market sustained by an inflated value attributed to digital files as if they still were physical objects that are owned.

Nowadays, there are three major players in the type business: Microsoft, Adobe and Monotype Imaging.

<strong>Apple Computer</strong> hasn't been a key figure in the type market (concentrating on developing font technology for its operating system), but it had an essential role in developing the actual playing field. Apple heralded the personal computer era in with their original Macintosh and has intermittently collaborated and competed with Microsoft and Adobe, being responsible for the development of the <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/TrueType">TrueType</a> font format along with Microsoft as a response to Adobe's high-priced <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Type_1_Font">PostScript Type I</a> font description format. The release of TrueType in 1991 forced Adobe to gradually reduce prices and eventually follow suit, releasing the PostScript specifications so that software developers could implement it without limitations in their programs.

<strong>Adobe Systems Inc.</strong>, besides being responsible for a highly successful suite of imaging and DTP software, has a very strong position in the type market: not only is it a type vendor (through its typography division, Adobe Type) but also the most influential company in the sense that it owns most digital design solutions - especially after acquiring its main rival Macromedia in April 2005 and facing no significant competition in its market.

<strong>Microsoft</strong> is responsible for creating the most widely used operating system, as well as the most popular office suite. Along with Adobe, Microsoft developed the currently dominant OpenType file format, which is freely available to developers as long as they agree to the licensing terms. Adobe converted its entire type collection to OpenType in a move to spread the new standard.

<strong>Monotype Imaging</strong> is now a distant remnant of Tolbert Lanston's original creation. It has adjusted technical breakthroughs in the 20th century and claimed a staunch position in today's digital type market. It was acquired by Agfa in 1999 forming Agfa Monotype, which in turn was acquired by TA Associates (a North American investment firm), changing its name to Monotype Imaging and developing a position in font software and rendering engines, and also securing a strong standpoint in the font vendor market after acquiring its rival Linotype (and the rights to their entire type collection).

<strong>ii. User Type</strong>

Most people get introduced to digital type by means of text editors. The digital revolution would be the perfect reason to finally open typography to everyone and make it a mainstream subject instead of a limited-access craft. Things have happened otherwise, though, and the inability to create a suitable interface for allowing basic experimentation with type has severely crippled the possibilities of the new medium.
 
The font selection paradigm has changed little during the years, offering a whole collection of typefaces in a drop-down menu. Such is the immediateness of digital type: It's just there, no need to open drawers with thousands of lead characters. Users are encouraged, by means of a simple GUI, to just pick their font and get to work on their document. Even more: you don't even need to pick, just stick with the default choice the software maker's made for you. Word processing interfaces also assume the user doesn't want to be bothered with layout choices such as margins, structure - and they also make the choice for us (incidentally, they also made it quite awkward to change these defaults). In short: the standard word-processing interface tells users to not bother with type. 

This paradigm helps to build the general perception that a font is a finished, shrink-wrapped and untouchable product - pretty much like prepackaged software. Although font files can be opened and edited as long as we have an appropriate editor, most typeface editors are either crude or catering exclusively to the type designer market. The user usually isn't able to reach the underpinnings and intricacies of type, instead being expected just to understand that the default template is more than enough.

Such an approach to software designing effectively discourages any kind of interest in typographic issues by the general public, and helps to fuel the thought that fonts are "just there". It's worth noting that there is still no easy and streamlined way to buy, install and use fonts, unlike most other digital markets - iTunes would be a good example of that kind of market strategy.

<strong>iii. Designer Type</strong>

The type designer community is centered on the study of classical and modern examples and making attempts to postulate theory and practical guidelines for the craft of type design, sitting somewhere between the methods of architecture and those of poetry. 

<a href="http://www.identifont.com/show?13A">Fred Smeijers</a>'s analysis of the type designer's duty, in his manifesto <strong>Type Now</strong>, is quite straightforward. On the issue of responsibility of type designers and commitment to specific guidelines, he states that "a type designer cannot escape this responsibility of judgment (...). In the end, people - the society - either accept it or they don't"[3]. Society, it seems, would be the ultimate judge of whether a typeface is a hallmark of craft or doomed to failure. 

On the other hand, we find a curious account on Smeijers's description on Fontana, a typeface by Ruben Fontana inspired by Meta [4]: he describes it as "uncomplicated", "tres sympathique", "sunny" and "open minded". This certainly sounds more like a description of a person or a song than that of an object, and indeed sheds some doubt on the touted objectiveness of good type design in the sense that it seems unable to find serious and objective terms to classify a typeface's features. Historical categorisations of design tendencies vary from author to author, and although there are some widely used terms to describe historical periods and typeface features, such as "transitional type" or "slab serifs", there's a tendency to borrow from poetry and music to identify a type family's "soul" (which, though relevant from an artist or a historian's point of view, is rather unscientific).

This is not a contradiction, though, since we can distinguish between type as a creative activity (in which there would be no problem with this kind of analogy) and type as an industry and commodity (where profit, market tendency, shareholder demands and legal requirements imply that things have a definite value and purpose). Naturally, Smeijers's interest is on the craft and art of typography, and not the market and the economic relationships that it spawns. On the other hand, our interest is definitely that which Smeijers doesn't care for. 

We need to account that defending the status of type as a functional solution to practical problems requires an objective set of rules that derive from the way we read and write. We cannot yet account for matters of objective legibility while we don't possess all information on our mental processes and the mechanisms in the brain involved in acquiring and processing written information - this is the field of cognitive psychology and neuroscience. 

We know, from history, that a text with generous linespacing will certainly read better than other with no linespacing at all. The German blackletter used by Gutenberg in his Bible, however, is almost unreadable to a contemporary westerner's eyes and definitely alien to someone from a non-Western background. In the fifteenth century, though, it was certainly the norm. History can help to avoid repeating mistakes, but it also shows the relative importance of our current standards. 

In short, we still cannot objectively define type, and won't be able to before a major breakthrough in neural science. However, copyright issues and legal matters impose formal specifications on what a font is and what it is not. Whether a typeface is a tweak, a revival or a work of art is left to the courts.


<strong>3. Tweaking and reviving</strong>

In order to explain the type designer's first reluctance to embrace the digital alternative, and also understand how design processes are not as straightforward as they are presented to us, we'll concentrate on Fred Smeijers's account on the current state of events in typography. Specifically, we'll borrow his term <strong>font tweaking</strong> [5]. This process consists of loading a font, "tweaking" it - altering small details - and releasing them with different names, thereby circumventing copyright laws (US law protects font names as trademarks, but not font designs). Smeijers is clear in pointing that font tweakers have nothing to do with type design at all, reinforcing the distinction between doing type as a labour of love and doing it for a profit. 

Font revivals, on the other hand, are re-interpretations of existing designs, and our best example would be Morison's effort in bringing the classical designs into the Monotype type library. Revivals matter to us because they aren't original productions (as they draw inspiration from existing designs) but aren't copies either (because no rights over them could be warranted otherwise, since there would be no original idea). 

Digital type foundries and vendors still maintain the tradition, digitising and redoing the old masters' work. It's worth noting that even if a certain typeface, such as those with expired copyrights, resides in the public domain, anyone can make a digital version - a revival - and claim the rights to it. 

Digital type catalogues are rife with revivals: In Bringhurst's inventory of digital foundries[6], we can find 14 that issue revivals, and 4 that only release original designs. This interest in resuscitating previous designs also has motives that stand apart from simple typographic archaeology. Revivals are routinely issued by vendors and foundries to protect the rights of the rightsholder when a typeface's copyright is about to expire. Such is the case with Avenir LT, Adobe Garamond and Frutiger Next - which is what allowed Linotype to retain the rights to the original design and be able to sue Microsoft. 

Revivals reside in a kind of legal in-between - some, like Arial (which is more a tweak than a declared revival), manage to stick around; while others, like Segoe, raise copyright lawyers' eyebrows.

Given these two aspects, one cannot but wonder that a type designer wouldn't be thrilled with this perspective. One has also to question why there is such a rift in reactions between font tweaking and font revivals, which can be interpreted as no more than corporate font tweaking. A practical example of this is MyFonts.com's description of the Avenir LT font (<a href="http://www.myfonts.com/fonts/linotype/avenir-lt/">link</a>, down the page) - a "recut version of Avenir", stating that "The 'LT' was added to the name as the metrics differ from the original version". This definitely corresponds to Smeijers' description of font tweaking, despite the fact that the name change wasn't intended to avoid legal troubles, but to assert the brand of the author of the revival. What is a revival, then, other than a corporate-sanctioned font tweak?

<strong>4. Technology on arcane standards</strong>

The current terminology used in typography is also a clear signal of how it still depends on former traditions instead of adapting to its new medium.

Digital typography's rules and terminology have been determined by its physical counterparts, and that still hasn't changed. For example, we still talk about "leading" - a term for the spacing between lines that takes its name from the lead strips used for that purpose - although the term "line spacing" is gradually replacing it in user-oriented applications such as Microsoft Word. 

Another example: while type foundries got that name because of their heavy use of metal, single-person studios with Macs are still referred to as "foundries". And fonts are described as being "cut" or "cast", more than "digitised". We talk about "digital versions" instead of digital copies, perhaps to preserve their history and soul and not treat them as just another file in a user's computer. 

Although we can forgive this persistence in using traditional typesetting terms (mayhap as a historic homage), it also is a symptom that the type activity and business have failed to redefine themselves for the digital medium. On the other hand, these examples can actually be interpreted as quite an artificial and linguistic way to value the work of the typographer, probably with the aim of distinguishing between "true" type designers and mere font tweakers, and not let "true" typography be contaminated by the creeping tweaker threat. 


<strong>5. Now</strong>

Given that digital type is hanging around for thirty years, the progress in improving on font technology and taking advantage of the digital medium has been rather dim. On the other hand, type designers in general (with the exception of rare cases such as <a href="www.emigre.com">Emigre</a> or <a href="http://www.letterror.com/">Letterror</a>) have not tried to get to grips with font technology, rather limiting themselves to drawing and tracing their designs in Fontographer and selling them on major font vendors (<a href="http://www.myfonts.com">MyFonts</a>, <a href="http://www.fonts.com/">Monotype</a>) or independent ones (such as <a href="http://www.t26.com/">T26</a> and <a href="http://www.veer.com/">Veer</a>). Worse still, issues of originality and plagiarism have been discussed in type design circles, but corporate entities break them routinely while trying, at the same time, to assert their rights in courts.

The difference between major and minor vendors is not substantial: though distributors like Veer try to create a community and improve on the users' and designers' experience compared to major sellers through research, designer spotlights and support, digital typefaces are still regarded in an esoteric limbo between metal characters and abstract data. And though the price tags have steadily declined (and recently stabilised in the 20 dollar range in general), it is revealing that business models like iTunes or Flickr, or collaborative methods in producing typefaces (many typographers are still lone workers) haven't shown up yet, and that file formats have changed so little in the face of recent, sleeker solutions like XML and SVG. And there's little hope for innovation: the Adobe-Macromedia and Monotype-Linotype mergers have paved the ground for a corporate monoculture ruled by software and typeface vendors and distributors, with very little margin for competition.

We can also point a mutual apathy between commercial developers and designers as a possible reason - type designers try to adapt to outdated ways - file formats and type tools - to create their works, while developers lag in keeping up to date to new breakthroughs. Limiting the tools is limiting the imagination.

On the other hand, font vendors have an incredibly contradictory stance regarding font rights, using copyright law to protect their products while violating it to borrow from others'. The different fate of Arial and Segoe begs the question: are the vendors and distributors handling this as it should be handled?

This model's obvious contradictions definitely invite serious questioning as to the legitimacy and validity of the current type market and business model, which cannot effectively release its standards and technology because of the threat of competition. It's therefore left to users, designers and independent developers to shape a new way of defining type and creating effective communication channels between providers and users, be it through online communities or real-world discussion in type designer's circles and colleges.

If type takes the free/open source route - <a href="http://fontforge.sourceforge.net/">the</a> <a href="http://www.typeforge.net/cms/">wheels</a> <a href="http://www.sil.org/~gaultney/gentium/">are</a> <a href="http://robofab.com/ufo/index.html">already</a> <a href="http://linuxlibertine.sourceforge.net/#licence">in</a> <a href="http://freefontmanifesto.blogspot.com/">motion</a> - how can type vendors sustain their profit margins and their markets? With open fonts and free font-editing software around, there would be little doubt that typography can take a very interesting turn. Could we also see the open approach and the business approach coexist, catering to specific users' needs, whether amateur or professional? And, finally, will the type world come to terms with the fact that appropriation and use of other's ideas have defined the activity since its beginnings, and that it implies a serious rethinking of concepts such as authorship, plagiarism and author's rights?

<em>[Note: this text was written as part of my MA studies at the Piet Zwart Institute. Please <strong>do</strong> post any comments or corrections in the comment box below!]</em>

<strong>a. Notes</strong>

[1] Friedl, Ott, Stein: Typography: An encyclopedic survey of type design and techniques through history. (p. 409)
[2] Arial is now a "standard" font of web typography, being part of a very limited set of fonts that all browsers can read.
[3] Smeijers, Fred: Type Now. (p.25)
[4] id., p. 40
[5] id., p. 32
[6] Bringhurst, Robert: The Elements of Typographic Style. (p.309)


<strong>b. References</strong>

<ul>
<li>Bringhurst, Robert: The Elements of Typographic Style. Vancouver, Hartley & Marks, 2002.</li>
<li>Smeijers, Fred: Type Now. London, Hyphen Press, 2003.</li>
<li>Friedl, Ott, Stein: Typography: An encyclopedic survey of type design and techniques through history. London, Black Dog & Leventhal, 1998.</li>
<li>Steinberg, S.H., and Trevitt, John: Five Hundred Years of Printing (4th Revised edition). London, Oak Knoll Press, 1996.</li>
</ul>




<strong>c: Online references</strong>

<ul>
<li><a href="http://www.ms-studio.com/articles.html">The Scourge of Arial</a> by Mark Simonson (background and critical account on Arial)</li>
<li><a href="http://redir.internet.com/!search/itmanagement.earthweb.com/columns/executive_tech/article.php/3599861">"Is Microsoft's Vista Font Just a Copy?"</a> by Brian Livingston (news article on the Segoe legal case)</li>
<li><a href="http://itmanagement.earthweb.com/columns/executive_tech/article.php/3601421">"Designer Says Vista Font Is Original"</a> by Brian Livingston (followup on the previous story)</li>
<li><a href="http://www.sanskritweb.net/forgers/#FORGERS">The Funny Font Forging Industry</a> - A Report for Legal Authorities by Ulrich Stiehl (an aggressive take on font tweaking and appropriation)</li>
</ul>]]></content:encoded>
		<excerpt:encoded><![CDATA[Appropriation has been a recurring and accepted strategy in defining typography as activity and business. We can pinpoint four cases where appropriation has definitely been key in defining landmarks in the history of type, not only aiding the breaking of technical and creative boundaries but also helping to question legal and moral ones.
 
We'll go on to briefly analyse the current situation in typography, focusing on the approach to the subject by corporations, users and designers. The current business model (digital foundries, font files with copyrights) is, as we'll argue, a remnant of a time where a typeface filled a whole drawer and fails to account for the necessary changes that the information age demands; we'll conclude with the definition of an essentially contradictory business model that has very strong stands against "font forging" and copyright issues, although it has historically - and now, more than ever - thrived on constant, and often uncredited, appropriation of ideas and designs.]]></excerpt:encoded>
		<wp:post_id>183</wp:post_id>
		<wp:post_date><![CDATA[2007-01-31 16:38:43]]></wp:post_date>
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		<wp:post_name><![CDATA[appropriation-and-type-before-and-today]]></wp:post_name>
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		<category domain="author" nicename="ricardo"><![CDATA[Ricardo]]></category>
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		<title>Use-ability</title>
		<link>http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/tools/use-ability</link>
		<pubDate>Tue, 27 Feb 2007 10:19:22 +0000</pubDate>
		<dc:creator><![CDATA[Femke]]></dc:creator>
		<guid isPermaLink="false">http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=186</guid>
		<description></description>
		<content:encoded><![CDATA[At the <a href="http://www.fosdem.org/2007/">FOSDEM</a> (Free and Open Source Software Developers Meeting) conference in Brussels, two <a href="http://www.opensuse.org/">openSuse</a> developers presented their research on usability of <a href="http://www.kde.org/">KDE</a> desktops.

<a title="p1000537.JPG" href="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/p1000537.JPG"><img src="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/p1000537.thumbnail.JPG" alt="p1000537.JPG" /></a>

Their testing methods consists of interviews, questionnaires, screen recordings plus precise video documentation of a group of 10 people trying to accomplish 12 tasks using various desktop systems (KDE classic, KDE reloaded and Windows Vista). Besides looking for 'succes rate' and 'accomplishment time', they also measured 'the hedonic aspect' which I thought was pretty interesting. The <a href="http://www.attrakdiff.de/">AttrakDiff standard</a> (which is in itself a proprietary method ;-)) measures 'pleasure' i.e. the joy of using a system. Instead of asking: 'Did the interface do what you expected', it tries to find out whether it was an interesting experience. Which of course could also mean, that the system did the opposite of what you thought it would do.]]></content:encoded>
		<excerpt:encoded><![CDATA[]]></excerpt:encoded>
		<wp:post_id>186</wp:post_id>
		<wp:post_date><![CDATA[2007-02-27 11:19:22]]></wp:post_date>
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		<title>And all he left was letter A...</title>
		<link>http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/typo/and-all-he-left-was-letter-a</link>
		<pubDate>Wed, 28 Feb 2007 10:14:45 +0000</pubDate>
		<dc:creator><![CDATA[admin]]></dc:creator>
		<guid isPermaLink="false">http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=187</guid>
		<description></description>
		<content:encoded><![CDATA[<em>A little note on <a href="http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=183">Appropriation and Type text</a>.</em>

Gutemberg printed the first book with movable type in 1455. Maybe copyright wasn't existing at the time, but there was, and there is still, a fight for the first inventor of the printer machine in Europe. Castaldi is alleged to have created movable type in 1442 (inspired by the use of glass letters made in Venice and used by scribes to print large first letter on page. Gutemberg knew that invention from Faust, one of his student.) 

One mythical story about the creation of printing press is a robbery. Laurens Janszoon Coster was a important citizen of Dutch city Haarlem. He discovered the movable type while playing with his grandchildren, cutting pieces of wood in shapes of letters. Realizing the possibilities of this, Coster improved the system with good ink and metal letters, and soon started to print books. Business florishes, worksmen are employed. But while the Coster family were at church on Christmas Eve 1441, employee Johann broke into the printing office and stole presses and types. He fled to Mainz, where he immediately sat an office and print. Some version tells it was Johannes Fust, the partner of Gutenberg (and who scrooge him later on). 

<a href='http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/coster.jpg' title='coster.jpg'><img src='http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/coster.jpg' alt='coster.jpg' /></a>

Fust was formerly often confused with the famous magician Dr Johann Faust, who, though an historical figure, had nothing to do with him. 

Not to mention the fact that the first printed font was an imitation of monastic script blackletter. 

<a href='http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/sample.jpg' title='sample.jpg'><img src='http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/sample.jpg' alt='sample.jpg' /></a>

Read in "The Secret History of Letters", Simon Loxley, ed. I. B. Tauris, 2006
]]></content:encoded>
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		<wp:post_id>187</wp:post_id>
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		<wp:comment>
			<wp:comment_id>1710</wp:comment_id>
			<wp:comment_author><![CDATA[Harrisson]]></wp:comment_author>
			<wp:comment_author_email><![CDATA[nmaleve@all2all.org]]></wp:comment_author_email>
			<wp:comment_author_url>http://</wp:comment_author_url>
			<wp:comment_author_IP><![CDATA[87.65.131.216]]></wp:comment_author_IP>
			<wp:comment_date><![CDATA[2007-02-28 16:42:24]]></wp:comment_date>
			<wp:comment_date_gmt><![CDATA[2007-02-28 15:42:24]]></wp:comment_date_gmt>
			<wp:comment_content><![CDATA[This Coster can be considered as a propaganda figure. This happened when the netherland were just created. Having a national hero such as the inventor of movable type press was a great opportunity... "Ideas don't have to be true to bring good results."]]></wp:comment_content>
			<wp:comment_approved><![CDATA[1]]></wp:comment_approved>
			<wp:comment_type><![CDATA[]]></wp:comment_type>
			<wp:comment_parent>0</wp:comment_parent>
			<wp:comment_user_id>1</wp:comment_user_id>
		</wp:comment>
	</item>
	<item>
		<title>Deadline March 14, 2007 at 11:59 PM PST</title>
		<link>http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/news/deadline-march-14-2007-at-1159-pm-pst</link>
		<pubDate>Thu, 08 Mar 2007 11:48:16 +0000</pubDate>
		<dc:creator><![CDATA[Femke]]></dc:creator>
		<guid isPermaLink="false">http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=191</guid>
		<description></description>
		<content:encoded><![CDATA[The<strong> Open Font Library</strong> (OFL.o) needs a logo to help identify their project. They want the community to help create this logo and three judges from the OFL.o will select the winning logo which they will use in all of their branding.

Logos need to be submitted in .svg before March 14, 2007 at 11:59 PM PST

Details here: <a href="http://openfontlibrary.org/?ccm=/OFLBLogo">http://openfontlibrary.org/?ccm=/OFLBLogo</a>]]></content:encoded>
		<excerpt:encoded><![CDATA[]]></excerpt:encoded>
		<wp:post_id>191</wp:post_id>
		<wp:post_date><![CDATA[2007-03-08 12:48:16]]></wp:post_date>
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		<category domain="author" nicename="femke"><![CDATA[Femke]]></category>
		<category domain="post_tag" nicename="libre-fonts"><![CDATA[Libre Fonts]]></category>
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	<item>
		<title>DIN - Das Ist Norm - II</title>
		<link>http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/typo/din-das-ist-norm-ii</link>
		<pubDate>Wed, 14 Mar 2007 15:20:22 +0000</pubDate>
		<dc:creator><![CDATA[admin]]></dc:creator>
		<guid isPermaLink="false">http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/?p=192</guid>
		<description></description>
		<content:encoded><![CDATA[<a href='http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/plate_new.jpg' title='plate_new.jpg'><img src='http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/plate_new.jpg' alt='plate_new.jpg' /></a>

<a href='http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/plate_old.jpg' title='plate_old.jpg'><img src='http://ospublish.constantvzw.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/plate_old.jpg' alt='plate_old.jpg' /></a>

"FE-Schrift or fälschungserschwerende Schrift (falsification-hindering script) has been the only typeface used on new vehicle registration plates in Germany since November, 2000. It was designed for the German government in the late 1970s in the light of Red Army Fraction terrorist activities, when it was discovered that with the then standard font for vehicle registration plates (DIN 1451 road-sign font) it was particularly easy to modify letters by applying a small amount of black paint or black insulating tape. For example, it was easy to change a "P" to an "R" or a "B", or an "L" or "F" to an "E". Modifications to FE-font plates are somewhat more difficult as they also require the use of white paint, which is easily distinguished at a distance from the peculiar retroreflective white background of the plate, in particular at night."

From:
<a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/FE-Schrift">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/FE-Schrift</a>]]></content:encoded>
		<excerpt:encoded><![CDATA[]]></excerpt:encoded>
		<wp:post_id>192</wp:post_id>
		<wp:post_date><![CDATA[2007-03-14 16:20:22]]></wp:post_date>
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		<category domain="post_tag" nicename="standards-formats"><![CDATA[Standards + Formats]]></category>
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		<wp:comment>
			<wp:comment_id>2416</wp:comment_id>
			<wp:comment_author><![CDATA[Gregory]]></wp:comment_author>
			<wp:comment_author_email><![CDATA[gregorycadars@gmail.com]]></wp:comment_author_email>
			<wp:comment_author_url></wp:comment_author_url>
			<wp:comment_author_IP><![CDATA[62.205.67.83]]></wp:comment_author_IP>
			<wp:comment_date><![CDATA[2007-03-28 12:03:42]]></wp:comment_date>
			<wp:comment_date_gmt><![CDATA[2007-03-28 11:03:42]]></wp:comment_date_gmt>
			<wp:comment_content><![CDATA[Fabrizio Schiavi wrote a small essay on this particular subject back in 2002:
http://www.fsd.it/usefuldesign/germ